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Wednesday, 30 March 2011

'See No Evil-Hear No Evil' Blog Postings. Editorial.

At left, free-ranging introduced Macaque monkeys, Mexico, from DK Images.

I continue to receive arguments about the 'See No Evil-Hear No Evil' blog attempting to argue the point about the sculpture's nose and the non-existence of Japanese ships drifting across the Pacific.

I shall not post any more arguments along those lines because the points are simply not arguable. Anybody that thinks that the shape of the nose on the sculpture can be made in any way to conform to the nose of a New World monkey is simply wrong and simply has no idea what the nose of a New World monkey looks like. There is no way a native of the New World could be familiar with the noses of New World monkeys and imagine the nose of an Old World monkey. That is an absurd argument, and any messages coming to me making that point shall not be allowed because the argument cannot be forced that way by any amount of rhetoric, fancy imagination or any possibly reasonable mistake. And I suggest that all of you even alleging that such a thing is even possible should take a refresher course in basic primate anatomy. And NO, I do NOT feel that I need to point you to any of the standard references that you may easily consult for that information. All of you present yourselves as individuals possessing some sort of expertise in the matters being discussed. The very statements you make betray you because you have made such a basic and fundamental error from the onset. NONE of you have indicated an iota of understanding of the basic difference in the shape of Old World and New World monkeys, and ALL of you continue to indicate that particular lack in your education simply on the basis that you pretend that making such a mistake by a primitive artist is even feasible.

Just what the Hell do you even imagine you are talking about? You people really ought to do a little research on the internet before you go flying off with worthless verbage about things you think are supposed to be so without bothering to look anything up. And I shall not provide you with an arena where you might continue to make cheap shots under those circumstances.

As to the Japanese ships drifting across the Pacific during storms and the sailors being taken as slaves, a recent article from the Smithsonian magazine that mentions the situation may be found at:

Which begins with the statement that 'For Thousands of years, the Pacific Ocean's strong currents have swept shipwrecked Japanese sailors onto American shrores'

And here is the full text of an early article on the subject, dating to 1875:

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA: Re-printed from the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 1876. OUTLINE MAP OF THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN, Showing the Distribution of Disabled Japanese Junks by Winds and Currents; also Direction of the Kuro Shiwo, or Japanese Warm Stream, as corrected by the Observations and Investigations of Professor George Davidson, U. S. C. S. CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. JAPANESE WRECKS, STRANDED AND PICKED UP ADRIFT IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN, ETHNOLOGICALLY CONSIDERED, AS Evidence of a constant infusion, of ?Japanese lilood among the (Joast 1'ribes of Northwestern Indians. CHARLES WOLCOTT BROOKS, Member of the California Academy of Sciences; Ex-Consul of Japan for California and Attach^ of the Japanese Embassy to fifteen Treaty Powers, 1871-72-73. Read before the California Academy of Sciences, at their Meeting, March 1st, 1875. SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA: Printed by the Academy. 187C. ANTHROPOLOGY INTRODUCTION. LIBRARY As nature is a mechanism whose parts are intimately associated, so all vork has its co-laborers. I am indebted to many kind friends for their co-oper- ation and assistance in verifying the particulars of individual cases. The collection, as a whole, is entirely my own, and has been progressing since March, 1853, when at sea off the coast of Japan I first fell in with the water- logged wreck of a junk. In issuing this reprint of a paper published in the Proceedings of the Cali- fornia Academy of Sciences, no one can be more aware than myself, of how much is left undone; but I must in frankness say, that thus far the collection of exact particulars has involved a voluminous correspondence, and been in- dustriously prosecuted, in spite of great difficulties, (often of distance); and had 1 awaited to obtain perfect completeness, this publication would have been indefinitely postponed. By calling attention to material already in hand, I hope other cases may be b'ought to light, and thus a chain of evidence become established, which shall point to hidden laws, underlying the ethnological as well as physical conditions here presented. With each step in the progress of these investigations, I have been deeply impressed how largely this list is capable of being increased, by studious and systematic search through all the ancient literature, relating to countries whose shores are washed by the North Pacific Ocean. In the aim to exercise especial care, where partial discrepancies were found to exist, the version which, after diligent examination, appears to me most reliable, has been adopted. Keports of Japanese wrecks not here enum- erated, or any well authenticated corrections to this list, will, if addressed to Chakles Wolcott Brooks, care of Japanese Consulate, San Francisco, Cali- fornia, be thankfully received, and posted in the official record book, access- ible to all for future reference. Among those whose kind co-operation I take pleasure in acknowledging, are: Their Excellencies the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Japan; His Excel- lency Kats Ava, H. I. J. M. Minister of Marine; His Excellency Hirobumi Ito, H. I. J. M. Minister of Public Works: Nakahama Manjiro; Fukuzawa Ukitchy, now one of the most advanced literary men of Japan; Yoshinari Hatakeyama, A, M., one of their ripest scholars, and head of the Imperial College at Tokio; and especially to my former colleague and present suc- cessor, Samro Takaki, to whom I am largely indebted for many valuable translations and researches into official records; to Professor George David- son, United States Coast Survey, for reliable information regarding the phys- ical features of the Kuro Shi wo; and to members of the Academy for their kind appreciation of the importance of the work undertaken. C. W. B. San Francisco, Oct. 1, 1876. REPORT OF JAPANESE VESSELS WRECKED IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN FKOM THE EARLIEST RECORDS TO THE PRESENT TIME. Every junk found adrift or stranded on the coast of North America, or on the Hawaiian or adjacent islands, has on examination proved to be Japanese, and no single instance of any Chinese vessel has ever been reported, nor is any believed to have existed. This may be explained by the existence of theKuro Shi wo, literally " black stream," a gulf stream of warm water, which sweeps northeasterly past Japan toward the Kurile and Aleutian Islands, thence curving around and passing south along the coast of Alaska, Oregon and California. This stream, it is fouad, has swept these junks toward America at an average rate of fully ten miles a day. There also exists an ocean stream of cold water, emerging from the Arctic Ocean, which sets south close in along the eastern coast of Asia. This fully accounts for the absence of Chinese junks on the Pacific, as vessels disabled off their coast would naturally drift southward. A noticeable feature is the large number of disasters on the coast of Japan in the month of January, during which season the strong northeast monsoons blow the wrecks directly off shore into the Kuro Shi wo. The climate of Japan is temperate, with the exception of the extreme north- ern provinces, where intense cold prevails and where snow is abundant; and the extreme southern provinces, whose climate is very warm. About the year 1639 the Japanese Government ordered all junks to be built with open sterns, and large square rudders, unfit for ocean navigation, hoping 8 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE thereby to keep their jDeojDle isolated within their own islands. Once forced from the coast by stress of weather, these rudders are soon washed away, when the vessels naturally fall off into the trough of the sea, and roll their masts out. The number, of which no record exists, which have thus suffered during the past nineteen centuries niust be very large, probably many thousand vessels. Among Japanese mariners, the fear of being thus blown off their coast, has been an ever-threatening danger; and the memory of such time-honored accidents, is a common feature in the traditions of every seaport settlement along the eastern coast of Japan. By the Government Census, taken in 187-i, the total population of Japan was 33,300,675 souls, and there were 22,670 registered sailing vessels of Jap- anese style, (junks) of from 8 to 383 tons, engaged in the coasting trade. The crews of ordinary trading junks average from eight to twelve men each. In the sixteenth year of the reign of the Emperor Suizin, B. C. 81, merchant ships and ships of war are first spoken of as built in Jaj)an. Under the Shogoon lyemitsu, about 1639, edicts commanded the destruction of all boats built upon any foreign model, and forbade the building of vessels of any size or shape superior to that of the present junk. By the imperial decree of 1637, Japanese who had left their country and been abroad, were not allowed to return, death being the penalty for traveling abroad, studying foreign languages, introducing foreign customs, or believing in Christianity. The Empire of Japan is situated in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean, and is composed of four large islands and of a great number of smaller ones. It faces to the northwest the Kingdom of Corea, and is separated from it by the Japan sea. To the northeast the archipelago of Chijima (Kurile Islands) extends towards Kamsehatka. At the southwest the Liu Kiu Islands are situated opposite the Island of Formosa. Its whole length, extending from one end to the other of the empire, meas- ures more than 500 Bis (about 1225 English miles), and its breadth varies from 20 to 60 Bis (about 73% to 146 English miles.) Its total area is 23,740 Square Bis. The sources of information at command have been exceptionally good. During seventeen j^ears, in which I represented the Government of Japan at this port, it has been my pleasure to devote much critical attention to the subject of Japanese wrecks, picked up adrift in the North Pacific Ocean and stranded upon the northwest coast of America and its various outlying islands, and those of the chain extending from Hawaii towards Niphon. Besides keeping a detailed record of all wrecks reported during this period, I have also collected and verified many cases of earlier reports, which although still extant, were likely to be overlooked. In at least 37 of the cases quoted, I have either seen the saved, or received a personal account from those who were themselves witnesses, Hawaiian and Japanese traditions I have myself gathered in those countries. In March, 1860, I took an Indian boy on board the Japanese steam corvette Kanrin-maru, where a comparison of Coast-Indian and pure Japanese words was made at my request, by Fukuzawa Ukitchy, then Admiral's Secretary; NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 9 the result of which I prepared for the press, and it was at that time published in the Evening Bulletin, suggesting further linguistic investigation. The following examples submitted for consideration to the Academy, fairly illustrate the subject in its various phases; — 1. In Mr. Hubert H. Bancroft's unparalleled collection of ancient books and valuable manuscripts relating to the early history of the native races of the Pacific States, mention is made of several Japanese vessels reported in some of the Spanish-American ports on the Pacific. In 1617 a Japanese junk belonging to Magome, was at Acapulco. In 1613, June 10th, the British ship Clove, Capt. John Saris, arrived at Nagasaki, having on board one Japanese, picked up from the island of Bantam. 2. "In 1685," w^e read, " the Portuguese tried for the last time to re-es- tablish their trade by sending back a number of shipwrecked Japanese, picked up adrift, to their own country. The Japanese did liot molest them, but strictly prohibited their re-appearance on the Coast of Japan." 3. In 1694, a Japanese junk from Osaka was driven by adverse winds and weather and stranded on the coast of Kamschatka, at the mouth of the river Opala, on the south of Bolschaia Keka. The only survivor was after- wards taken to Moscow. Muller, in his " Voyages from Asia to America," published in 1761, re- marks that when in 1696 the Eussians reported the above, they said: "we have learned of several other instances of Japanese wrecks previously strand- ed on the coast of Kamschatka." 4. In 1710, a Japanese junk was stranded on the coast of Kamschatka, in Kaligirian bay, north of Awatscha. Ten i)ersons landed safely, of which four were killed and six taken captive in an encounter with Kamschadels. Subse- quently four of the captives fell into Russian hands, and one named Sanima, was sent in 1714 to St. Petersburg. 5. On the 8th of July, 1729, a Japanese junk called the Waka-shiina of Satsuma, in distress, after having been driven about at sea for six months, was finally stranded on the coast of Kamschatka, south of Awatscha bay, and 17 of her crew were saved. She was loaded with cotton and silk stuffs, rice and paper; the two latter articles shipped by Matsudaira Osumi-no-kami, (Prince of Satsuma) were government property. A petty Russian officer named Schtinnikovv, desiring to plunder the cargo, had fifteen of the survivors shot; for which crime he was subsequently con- demned and hung. The two remaining, an old merchant named Sosa and a young pilot Gonsa, were sent to Irkutz in 1721, and thence via Tobolsk, they reached St. Petersburg in 1732, where one died in 1736, the other in 1739. 6. In 1782 a Japanese junk was wrecked upon the Aleutian Islands, from which the survivors were taken in one of the Russian-American Com- pany's vessels to the town of Ochotsk, and thence to the inland city of Ir- kutsk. In 1792, the Governor-General of Siberia ordered the transport Cath- erine, then at Ochotsk, to return these men to their native country. The Russian vessel, after wintering in a harbor at the north end of Yeso, pro- ceeded to the port of Hakodate, where the Japanese officials politely but 10 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE firmly refused to allow their countrymea to land. They were subsequently returned to Siberia. 7. Among items of history mentioned in Japanese records, I find that in October, 1804, a Russian frigate commanded by Capt. Krusenstern, conveying Count Eesanoff, as Ambassador of the Czar, brought back to Nagasaki five Japanese seamen, being. part of a crew of fifteen rescued from a stranded junk; the other ten preferred to remain in Siberia. 8. In 1805, a Japanese junk was wrecked on the coast of Alaska, near Sitka; the seamen were quartered on Japonski Island, whence they were taken by the Russians, and finally landed on the Coast of Yeso in 1806, 9. In 1812, Capt. Ricord, commanding the Russian sloop-of-war Diana, took seven Japanese, six of whom were seamen recently shipwrecked in a junk on the coast of Kamschatka, in the hope of exchanging them for seven captive Russians, confined in Japan. Being unable to land, they were returned to Kamschatka, reaching there October 12th. The Diana made a second attempt, and finally succeeded August 16th, 1813, in landing these Japanese at Kunashie Bay, the 20th Kurile, and eff'ected the liberty of the Russian Capt. Golownin and his associates. 10. In 1813, the Brig Forrester, Captain John Jennings, when in latitude 49^ N,, longitude 1283W., rescued the captain and two seaman from a dis- masted junk, timber laden, when 18 months from Yeso, bound to Niphon. Thirty-five men were on board, of whom thirtj^-two died of hunger. They were delivered to the Russians, who undertook to return them to Japan. 11. Captain Alexander Adams, formerly pilot at Honolulu, relates that March 24, 1815, in latitude 320 45' N., longitude 1260 57' W., when sailing master of brig Forrester, Captain Piggott, and cruising ofi" Santa Barbara, Cal- ifornia, he sighted at sunrise a Japanese junk drifting at the mercy of the winds and waves. Her rudder aud masts were gone. Although blowing a gale, he boarded the junk, and found fourteen dead bodies in the hold, the captain, carpenter, and one seaman alone surviving; took them on board, where by careful nursing they were well in a few days. They were on a V03'- age from Osaka to Yedo, and were 17 months out, having been dismasted in consequence of losing their rudder. 12. In 1820, a junk was cast upon Point Adams, the southern shore of the mouth of Columbia river. The vessel, which was laden with wax, went to pieces, and the crew, many in number, landed safely. 13. A junk was wrecked on Queen Charlotte's Island, in 1831. 14. December 23, 1832, at mid-day, a junk in distress cast anchor near the harbor of Waialua, on the shores of Oahu. She was from a southern port of Japan, bound to Yedo with a cargo of fish; lost her rudder and was dismasted in a gale, since which she had drifted for eleven months. Five out of her crew of nine had died. December 30th, she started for Honolulu, but was stranded on a reef off Barber's Point on the evening of January 1, 1833. The four survivors were taken to Honolulu, where, after remaining eigh- teen months, they were forwarded to Kamschatka, whence they hoped to work their way south through the northern islands of the group into their own country. This junk was about 80 tons burden. According to the tra- NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 11 ditions of the islands, several such junks had been wrecked upon Hawaii, before the islands were discovered by Captain Cook. 15, 16. In 1833, a Japanese junk was wrecked on the coast of Washington Territory, in the immediate vicinity of Cape Flattery. Many of her crew had perished, and several dead bodies were found headed up in firkins, in customary Japanese style, ready for burial. Out of 17 persons, the only survivors, two men and a boy, were rescued from the Indians, by the Hudson Bay Company's vessel Lama, Captain McNeal, who took them to England, touching at Honolulu on their way. Thence they proceeded to Canton, where they arrived in 1836, and stopped with Karl Gutzlaff, who learned their language, and intended accompanying them to Japan. In 1837, they left Macao in the American brig Morrison, dispatched by Clarence A. King for Yedo bay, to bear them home. Being fired upon, July 27, and prevented from landing, she sailed for Kagosima, where, being equally unsuccessful, she finally returned with the men to Macao. The Morrison, on whom Samuel W. Williams and Dr. Peter Parker were passengers, also had on board four other Japanese seamen, rescued from a disabled Japanese junk, which had drifted a long time at sea, until finally stranded on the eastern shore of the Philippine Islands, whence the survivors were forwarded to Macao, to be re- turned to Japan. 17. In 1839, a wrecked junk was boarded by Captain Cathcart of the American whale ship James Loper, drifting in latitude 30^ N., longitude 174° W., or about half way between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands. 18. In the Polynesian, October 17, 1840. published at Honolulu, I find: " The Japanese who took passage in the Harlequin remained at Kamschatka under the protection of the Governor awaiting an opportunity of returning to their native country." Note. — In 1834, the brig Harlequin conveyed to Petropaulski from Hon- olulu 18 Japanese taken from wrecks, who had remained 18 months at Hon- olulu. They were finally returned to Japan by Eussian officials. In 1840, Mr. Nathaniel Savory, a native of Massachusetts, residing at Port Lloyd, Bonin Islands, reports a Japanese junk of about 40 tons, laden with dried fish, entered that harbor in distress, having been driven from her course along the coast of Japan through stress of weather, with her jorovisions ex- hausted. They repaired the damage to the junk during that winter, and she sailed in the spring for Japan. Had these islands been uninhabited, this case would have added another to the list of wrecks. 19. In 1841, a fishing junk from the southeast part of Niphon was wrecked on an uninhabited island, where the three survivors remained six months, until taken off by Captain Whitfield, master of the American whale ship John Howland, and brought to Honolulu, where Denzo and Goemon remained, while Nakahama Manjiro went to the United States, and was educated by Captain Whitfield. After being there several years he returned to Honolulu where he found his former companions, and embarked January, 1851, on the Sarah Boyd, Captain Whitmore, bound for Shanghai, taking with them a whale-boat called the Adventure, with a fall rig and outfit. When off the Grand Liu-Kiu, the three Japanese effected a landing and the ship proceeded without stopping. Hence they finally reached Kiushiu and Nagasaki, in the 12 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE junk which bears the annual tribute money from Liu-Kiu to Japan. Man- jiro afterwards translated Bowditch's Navigator into Japanese, and visited San Francisco as sailing-master of the Japanese steam corvette Kanrin-mara, which arrived there March 17th, 1860. 20. In 1815, the United States Frigate St. Louis took from Mexico to Ning- po, in China, three shipwreck Japanese, being survivors of the crew of a junk which had drifted from the coast of Japan, entirely' across the Pacific Ocean, and finally stranded on the coast of Mexico, where they remained two years. The Chinese authorities were willing to receive these men and return them to their native country by their annual junk, which sails from Cheefoo to Naga- saki; but the Japanese objected to their landing, owing to the law of 1637. In 184:5, the JajJanese authorities informed Sir Edward Belcher, command- ing H.B.S. Samarang, that they would not receive returned Japanese from abroad, but "had sent a junk-full back to the Emperor of Chiua," to whose country they had gone to obtain return passages by the annual junk permitted from Cheefoo to Nagasaki. The above leads to the inference that the Saniarang may have had shipw^recked Japanese seamen on board. 21. In 1845, April 1st, Captain Mercator Cooper, of Sag Harbor, when in the American whale ship Manhattan, rescued eleven shipwrecked Japanese mariners from St. Peters, a small island lying a few degrees southeast of Nip- hon, and took them to Yedo Bay, where they were received undt;r exception. Captain Cooper is also reported to have fallen in with a sinking junk, from which he rescued as many more Japanese seamen. [See Dr. C. F. Winslow's account in Friend of Februarj^ 2d, 1846.] 22. In 1847, a French whaleship while cruising off Stapleton Island, sighted a fire-signal on the shore, and sent a boat to the relief of five Japanese sailors, who were in a helpless plight; the only survivors of a crew, whose dis- abled junk lay stranded on the beach of a small bay. Later, about 1853, a party of officers from the U. S. steam frigate Susquehanna landed and sur- veyed this wreck, which they then described as " still partly kept together by large nails of coiaper, and portions of sheets of metal. Her planks, fastened together at the edge, were but little rubbed or decayed." 23. In 1847, April 21st, the Bremen ship Otahelte, Captain Weitung, when in lat. 35^ N., long. 156^ E., fell in with a Japanese junk in distress, which had lost her rudder and had been driven off the coast of Japan in a gale No- vember, 1846, and had drifted five months. Took off the crew, consisting of nine men, also six tons of wax. She was about 80 tons burden and chiefly lad- en with paper belonging to Osaka, and bound north. Captain Weitung kept them on board four weeks, and May 19th, 1847, put them on board a junk in the Straits of Matsmai. [See Polynesian, October 17, 1847, and Friend, Dec- ember 2, 1847.] 24. In 1848, Captain Cox of New London, Conn., picked up fifteen of twenty Japanese seamen from a disabled junk in lat. 40° N., long. 170^ W., and kept them on board six months during a cruise in the Ochotsk sea, and finally landed them at Lahaina, where they remained six or eight months. 25. In 1850, during the autumn, S. Sentharo, Toro and J. Heco — the lat- ter then aged 13 years — left Osaka in a junk for Yedo. After discharging and reloading they started to return via Woragawa. After leaving the latter NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 13 place their rudder was disabled and they lost their mast and drifted out to sea. riTty days later the wreck was fallen in with by the American bark Auk- l(i)id, Captain Jennings, who took off and brought the crew of 17 persons to San Francisco, in February, 1851. They were quartered on board the U. S. revenue cutter, and cared for by order of the Collector of the Port. Our citi- zens generally took much interest in them. The Japanese were subsequently embarked on the U. S. sloop *S'^. Mary's and conveyed to Hongkong, where 15 were transferred to the U. S. steamer Susquehanna to await the arrival of Commodore Perry and his expedition. Heco and the second mate, Toro, re- turned to San Francisco on the bark Sarah Hooper, reaching there in the autumn of 1852. Sentharo returned with Kev. Mr. Goble, from San Fran- cisco to Japan, and also Toro returned in the American bark MelUa to Hako- date from San Francisco, via Honolulu, April 19, 1859. Toro was for a while clerk with Wells, Fargo & Co., and Joseph Heco, clerk with Macondray & Co. Heco was subsequently appointed for duty on the United States Surveying Schooner Fennimore Cooper, about 1858-59, and left her at Honolulu, on account of sickness, but finally returned to Yedo, on the United States steamer Mississippi. [See Evening Bulletin, June, 1862.] 26. In 1850, April 22d, in lat. 450 N. long. 155° E., the American whale ship Henry Kneeland, Clark, master, fell in with a Japanese junk having 13 persons on board. The vessel left Yedo for Kuno, but lost her rudder and was dismasted; then drifted to sea, and had been at the mercy of the winds and currents for sixty-six days, during forty of which they had subsisted on fish and snow water. The Captain and two seamen came to Honolulu on the H. K.; two of the crew were transferred to the Marengo; six were taken to Petropaulski and taken charge of by the Kussian authorities, and two came to Honolulu by the Nimrod. [See Friend, October 15, 1850; also Friend, November], 1850.] Note. — In 1851, by Japanese records I find that five Japanese seamen from Honolulu via China arrived at Nagasaki — probably the above. 27. In 1851, a Japanese junk was cast away upon Atka Island, and only three of the crew survived. 28. In 1852, April 15th, in lat. 31o N., long. 150O E., about 300 miles N. N. E. of Guam, Captain "West, in the American whaleship Isaac Howland, fell in with a .small Japanese junk in ballast. The four men on board had but a little oil to sustain life, and were much emaciated. Their tiller was lashed, and the vessel having been forty-nine days out of their reckoning, the crew had given themselves up to die. Two of these men Captain West took to the Atlantic States, and two were transferred to an American whaler about to cruise in the vicinity of the Japanese Islands. 29. In March, 1853, the American ship John Gilpin, Captain Doane, passed a water-logged wreck of a junk, her deck awash with the water, in lat. 18° — ' N., long. 1453 — ' E., just beyond Pagan and Origan Islands. Large numbers of fish were around the wreck. There were no survivors on board. She had every appearance of having been a very long time in the water. 30. In 1853, Captain C. M. Scammon discovered the wreck of a Japanese junk, on the southwest or largest of the San Bonito grouj) of Islands, off 14 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE Lower California, in lat. 28CN., long. 1160 W., and near Cedros Island. [See Alta, April 22, I860.] Her planks were fastened together on the edges with spikes or bolts of a flat shape, with all of the head on one side. The seams were not quite straight, although the workmanship otherwise was good. That portion of the ^^*reckin sight, was principally the bottom of the vessel, and gave evidence of having been a long time on shore. [Extract from Captain Scammon's log.] 31. In 1854, August 14th, just after Commodore Perry's departure, the American ship Lady Pierce, Captain Burrows, arrived at Simoda from San Francisco via Honolulu June 2, 1854. She returned Diyonoske to Japan, who was the sole survivor of a crew of fifteen men, and was picked off from a drifting junk near the Hawaiian Islands, after being seven months helpless at sea. He had resided some time in San Francisco. 32. In 1855, Captain Brooks, in American brig Leverett, which arrived her from Ayai), Siberia. November 29th, picked up an abandoned junk in lat. 420 N., long. 170^ W., about 900 miles from the American Coast. 33. In 1856, the American bark Messenger Bird, Captain Homer, reported a disabled junk at Guam, Ladrone Islands. 34. In 1856, Captain Jno. C. Lawton, in the brig Prince de Joinville, while getting guano at Cedros and adjacent islands, reported a Japanese wreck, seen near Magdalena Bay. 35. In 1858, the U.S. surveying schooner Fennlmore Cooper, Lieut. John M. Brooke, U.S.N, commanding, sailed from Honolulu for a cruise along the chain of islands extending thence towards Japan. He had on board a Japan- ese seaman named Marsa-Kitchi, whom he landed at Kanagawa. The junk from which this man was taken, was disabled at sea while engaged in the coasting trade, and her crew were forced to put her before the wind, heading to the eastward, a direction in which they were forced against their will. To drevent drifting too rapidly, they lowered their anchor in the open sea to act as a drag, paying out their full length of cable, and thus allowed it to remain until it finally parted. 36. Ina858, May 19th, the British ship Caribean, when in lat. 43- 40' N., long. 171^ E., about 1,600 miles from the coast of Japan, fell in with a dis- masted junk, which had carried away her rudder, and had been about five months floating helplessly at sea. The captain, mate and ten seamen were rescued and brought to San Francisco, where they arrived June 7, 1858. They were cared for by Captain Winchester, who took them in the Carihean to Vancouver Island, whence he was bound for China, but having met a Brit- ish war vessel off Japan, the rescued men were transferred to her, and thus lauded at a Japanese port. The junk was loaded with barley and rice, and barnacles two feet long were reported found upon the wreck. The British Government presented £400 to Captain Winchester as a reward and in reimbursement of his necessary outlays. 37. In 1859, the bark Japanese junk on Ocean Island, lat. 28^ 24' N., long. 178^21' W. 38. 39. In 1859, July 4th, the remains of two stranded junks, with lower NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 15. masts high on the beach, were found on the east or lagoon side of Brooks Island, lat. 280 11' N. long. 177o 18' to 25' W. 40. May 11th, 1862, the bark Yankee, Captain Claxton, passed in lat. 25^ 39' N., long. 1380 24' W., a wreck with the stump of one mast only standing, of which the wood was quite black with age. The junk was water-logged, and the sea washing entirely over her. Being satisfied there was no life upon her, and a heavy sea running, did not board; passed her three-quarters of a mile to windward, and the Yankee kept on her course. 41. In 1862, a Japanese junk was stranded m September near Attu. They had drifted in distress for 90 days, and out of a crew of twelve only three sur- vived. These were taken in 1863 to Nicolaefsky, Amoor river, and then re- turned to Hakodate by a Russian war vessel. 42. In 1862, May 4th, the ship Victor, Captain Crowell, arrived at San Francisco, with the captain, ofl&cers and crew, eleven in number, of the Jap- anese junk lo-maru, from Kanagawa, December 21, 1861, for Owari and Hiogo. On January 5, 1862, was disabled and drifted from land. Was about three months at the mercy of winds and currents, until picked up April 13th, 1862, in lat. 33-^ N., long. 1610 26' E., by the Victor. They were cared for by Mr. Brooks, Japanese Consul, and by him returned to Japan, in the American schooner Caroline E. Foote, for Hakodate. 43. A Japanese junk drifted past Baker's Island, lat. 0° 13' N., long. 176° 22' W., some time in 1863. Boats were sent out and towed it on to the beach. There were four Japanese bodies on board; all were dead. 44. In 1864, February 4th, on Providence Island, lat. 9- 52' N., long. 160^ 65' E., on the Lagoon shore of the island was seen the portions of a vessel which had been many years a wreck. Scattered along the outer shore were many redwood logs, some of them of great size. 45. In April, 1869, an abandoned junk was stranded on Adakh, one of the Aleutian Isles. 46. In 1870, in October, the San Salvador ship Louisa Canovera, Captain Demoro, when in lat. 370 46'N., and long. 158^10' E., fell in with a dis- masted junk, laden with rice, having four dead bodies on board, and no living persons. The papers and effects were taken and delivered to the Japanese Consul at San Francsico, and by him returned to Japan, November, 1870. 47. 48, 49. In July, 1871, the old chief at Attu Island, aged 70 years, re- ported that three Japanese junks had been lost upon the surrounding islets, during his recollection, besides one stranded not far from the harbor of that island in 1862. 50. In 1871, February 2d, in lat. 33^45' N., long. 141o 31' E., about 150 miles from the coast of Japan, the American ship Annie M. Smull, Captain Packer, fell in with the Japanese junk Sumi-yoshi-maru, of Kiushiu, and rescued the Captain and three surviving seamen, and landed them at San Francisco, February 24, 1871. They sailed from Shiroko, province of Ise, January 17, 1871, for Dai Osaki, with a cargo of wood. Two days later they were disabled, and drifted to sea, and were picked up seventeen days later. 51. In 1871, May 23d, in lat. 340 54' N., long. 143-32' E., Pacific Mail steamship China, Captain Cobb, rescued five Japanese seamen from the dis- abled junk Sumi-ayee-maru, of Kobe. Eleven out of sixteen originally on 16 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE board died upon the wreck, and the captain of the junk died on the steamer after being rescued. They were cared for by Mr. Brooks, who returned them to Yokohama, July 1, 1871, and the government presented suitable rewards. 52. In 1871, the Japanese juuk Jinko-maru, of Matsaka, of 180 kokus measurement, encountered a severe gale January 18, 1871, while going from Ise to Kumano, during which she lost her rudder, and while in danger of foundering cut away her masts. The junk drifted from the coast of Japan in the Kuro Shiwo for 2,500 miles in a helpless condition, her crew keeping a fire and living on rice, and fish they speared, until they drifted on the rocks at Atka, July 10th, 1871, where, by means of ropes, the three men on board landed safely. There they remained until September 19th, 1871, when they took passage by schooner H. 3f. Hutchmion for Ounalaska and San Francisco, whence they were returned to Japan by the Consul. 53. In 1873, Captain W. B. Cobb, in steamer China, rescued the crew from a wrecked junk in lat. — O — ' N., long. — o — ' E., and landed them at Yokohama, in acknowledgment for which the usual present was made him by the Japanese government. 54. A junk has been reported as stranded on the coast of Alaska. 55. A junk was cast upon the windward side of Kauaii, one of the Hawa- iian Islands, and the survivors landed at Hanalei harbor. 56. An old resident of Petropaulski informed me there was a Japanese junk stranded below that harbor, previous to 1812, where many years since the wreck still remained. Six of the crew survived, 57. A Japanese wreck was sighted adrift below San Diego. Reported in the Alta. 58. A junk was wrecked at Nootka Sound, 59. In 1875, April 6th, in lat. 38^ 02'N., long 164= 38' E., American ship Game Cock, Capt. T, C. Stoddard, fell in with the Japanese junk Wocmohi- maru, of about 80 tons, dismasted, with her stern stove and rudder gone, and generally in a helpless condition, and rescued therefrom twelve Japanese seamen. The junk was bound from Hakodate to Tokio, with a cargo of salt fish and sea-weed, when on December 3d they were blown off shore in a severe gale, December 10th they again made the land, when another heavy gale commenced and blew the junk off again, December 19th was forced to cut away the mast to save the hull. December 22d raised a jury mast and got under way, sailing towards Japan whenever the wind permitted; at other times took in sail and drifted. By their reckoning, they estimate having thus sailed 1500 miles west, principally with northeast winds, when, April 5th, in a bad sea, they carried away rudder, and soon after stove stern. At 8 A.M. the following day, they abandoned the wreck, from which they were rescued by the Game Cock, and landed at San Francisco April 28th, and were returned to Japan by Mr. Takaki May 1st, per Great Repuhlic. For the rescue and kind treatment of these men, the Japanese Government presented Capt. Stoddard with a gold chronometer watch through His Excellency Yoshida Kiyonari, their Minister at Washington. 60. In 1876, July 3d, in lat. 37^ 10' N., long. 167= 35' E., British barque Abhy Coicper, Capt. Nelson, fell in with the Japanese junk Eoki-maru, of Otaru, island of Yeso, of 477 kokus government measurement, equivalent to NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 17 atout 120 tons. The junk was dismasted and floating in a helpless condition . Sakaki-bara Katsiibe, mate, and Tomokitchi, sailor, the only survivors of 12 men, were rescued from the wreck, and made the following statement, which is very interesting as an illustration of many doubtless similar struggles. In October, 1875, the Junk loaded at Shari and Abashiri, on the northern coast of the island of Yeso, with salted salmon and preserved roe of salmon. Left latter place November 5th, and touched at Hakodate, whence they sailed December 6th for Tokio, Niphon. On the 9th, when on the east coast of Japan between lat. 390and 40^ N., and about long. 142-* E.. a severe westerly gale was encountered. December 12th carried away mainmast. Afterwards got it in and fished it with a piece of the main yard. On the 18th carried that mast away, and the yard was washed overboard, A sea soon after disabled the rudder, which was unshipped and taken in, the vessel in the meantime making water freely. To lighten her, 300 kokus of cargo (nearly two-thirds), was thrown overboard. From this time the vessel floated helplessly. Early in January, 1876, fresh water gave out, and all the rainwater possible was saved and used. Then three seamen were taken down with the scurvy, which soon appeared among the balance. Towards the close of January, fire- wood gave out, but a small nucleus of fire was preserved in a stove. As a last resort, the junk's boat was broken up for firewood. All hands subsisting on a little rice cooked in rain water, and principally on salt fish, with a very small allowance of water. February 5th Chojero died — the first death. March 9th, Capt. Sato Sangoro died; then followed Kitsaburo, April 16th; Bunkichi, 21st; Kizo, 24th; Kenkitchi, May 2d; Skedjero, 2d; Taske, 2d; Heihichi, 14th, and finally, Matsutaro, June 10th. The two survivors, anti- cipating a similar death, lingered until the forenoon of July 3d, when they sighted a vessel, had strength enough to raise a signal, and were rescued. They caught rain May 24th, after nearly all had died, which largely assisted in preserving the survivors. They also caught fifteen large fresh fish called bonita. Before the captain died, he wrote and handed to the mate letters to his family and owners, describing all details. The two survivors, expecting death themselves, boxed these up, with the ship's papers, and fastened them in a conspicuous place, whence they were taken and preserved. After the death of each person, the survivors enclosed their bodies in a Japanese coffin suitably inscribed, and stowed them in the hold of the junk, hoping they might reach some land and receive burial. The survivors reached San Francisco August 15th, 1876, and after recuperating, were returned to Japan by Mr. Takaki.* Many more might easily be added, but these suffice to establish many facts valuable to science. The annual rainfall of Japan averages 70.33 inches, occurring on 197.7 days, two-thirds of which falls between April and October; at Tokio the ther- mometer varies from a monthly maximum of 91o Faht. in August, to a min- imum of 20^ in January, averaging 580 22 for the year, and averages 48=^ 33 at Hakodate, where the average number of hard gales per annum is 16.79. [See Kaitakushi Keports and Tables, Tokio, 1875.] * — Note. — These last two cases laave been submitted by Mr. Brooks as additions to the Ist for publication since the reading of this paper. 18 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE The presence of wrecks so far sontli near the equator, indicates that they had been swept northward from Japan by the Kuro Shiwo, and thence south- ward along the northwest coast of America until they fell into the equatorial westerly current, where, in company with redwood logs, and drift-wood from Oregon, they must have reached these islands in the equatorial belt. In illustration of this equatorial current, we have the report of residents of Christmas Island, which speaks of a westerly current setting past that island at the rate of one and a-half to two miles an hour. August 23d, 1861, there was picked up on the shore of the island of Niihau, in latitude 21- 50' N., longitude 160-15' W., a bottle containing a paper, thrown from the American ship White Swallow, thrown overboard July 21st, 1861, in latitude 21- 30' N., longitude 151^ 55' W. It had made a nearly due west drift of 460 miles in about thirty-three days. This shows the existence of a very powerful westerly current around the Hawaiian Islands of about 14 miles per diem. In 1862, September 10th, an enormous Oregon tree about 150 feet in length and fully six feet in diameter above the butt, drifted past the island of Mauii, Hawaiian Islands. The roots, which rose ten feet out of water, would span about 25 feet. Two branches rose perpendicularly 20 to 25 feet. Several tons of clayish earth were embedded among its roots. Many saw-logs and pieces of drift-wood came ashore in this vicinity about this time. These were evidently portions of the immense body of ship -timber launched upon the Pacific during the great flood of the previous winter along the American coast. Their almost simultaneous arrival at Mauii in September, seems to indicate quite accurately the force and direction of the currents in this ocean. Supposing them to have come from the Columbia River, leaving say February 18th, 1862, and to have drifted 2,800 miles, they must have drifted at an average rate of 14 miles per day to have reached Mauii September 10th. "We may argue from the above that there were other ways of explaining the similarity of flora upon many islands of the Pacific and the high terraces of our Sierra Nevada mountains, beside the hypothesis of an intervening conti- nent where the broad Pacific now rests. There is a strong jDresumption that the present bed of the Pacific Ocean may once have been an extended valley, submerged by some abrupt and spasmodic catastrophe, at a period when the fiery interior of the earth was in a state of inconceivable agitation, and its equilibrium temporarily disturbed. Abundant ruptures of the entire combined strata of its crust along our mountain ranges, bear indisputable evidence, in prominences tilted up and raised to immense heights: conditions which must have necessitated corresponding depressions, and consequently established new beds for water, forming new islands, re-dividing and re-shaping continents. The existing shore lines of enormous empty basins, the pebble and cobble stones rounded by erotion, at present in the centre of this continent west of the Rocky Mountains, all contribute testimony of some great change. The spores or seeds of plants may, however, have been more recently transferred by clinging to the earth around the roots of such mammoth trees as floated from the high latitudes of the northwest coast of America. Once cast upon any island and rooted, they would soon replant and extend them- selves. Driftwood from Columbia River and Puget Sound distributed itself NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 19 throughout the North Pacific, and the windward shores of the Hawaiian Islands are literally lined with it, as well as with redwood logs of formidable size. Small parties of male Japanese have repeatedly reached the American continent by sea, cast upon its shores after floating helplessly for months. Until recently, the survivors must have remained permanently near where they landed, and naturally uniting with women of the native races, have left descendents more or less impressed with their physical peculiarities. Such a slow, limited, but constant infusion of Japanese blood, almost entirely from male seamen, was undoubtedly sufficient to modify the original stock of all coast tribes along our north-western shore. No marks exist of any immigra- tion en masse, neither is there any present record of any Japanese woman saved from such a wreck, although cases may formerly have occurred, but must have been very rare. These unfortunate seamen, often illiterate, and separated from their sources of learning, necessarily lost their own language; but in doing so, doubtless contributed many isolated words to the Indian dialects of this coast. Many shipwrecked Japanese have informed me that they were enabled to communicate with and understand the natives of Atka and Adakh Islands. Quite an infusion of Japanese words is found among some of the coast tribes of Oregon and California, either pure, as tsche-tsche, milk, or clipped, as hiaku, speed, found reduced to hyack, meaning fast, in Indian; or yaku, e^fil genius in Japanese, similarly reduced to yak, devil, by the Indians. In almost all words showing such similarity, the Indian word is always an abbreviated word, or shorter word than the Japanese, from which it may be argued that the latter was the original and the former derived. The construction of the two languages is, however, different. There are, however, a large number of pure Japanese words and some very peculiar Japanese "idioms, constructions, honorific, separative, and agglutinative particles " found nearly identical in the American-Indian dialect. Shipwrecked Japan- ese are invariably enabled to communicate understandingly with the coast Indians, although speaking quite a dift'erent language. The great mass of the Japanese people stoutly disclaim any common descent with the Chinese^ and firmly believe they have a wholly different origin. Any common ancestor must certainly have been in very remote ages. Professor George Davidson, in charge of the United States Coast Survey on the Pacific, our highest authority upon questions connected with the great ocean currents of this ocean, has bestowed much critical study upon the physical conditions connected with the Kuro Shiwo. In 1851, when sta- tioned at the mouth of the Columbia river, he began the interesting investi- gations necessary to demonstrate its complete outline. In 1868. he communicated to the National Academy of Science his deduc- tions establishing the existence of the return current northwestward, westward and southwestward along the shores of the Gulf of Alaska, and the southern coast of the Aleutian Islands, whilst the great body of the current is deflected down the northward coast until it is drawn into the Great Equatorial Current which moves westward until it strikes the Asiatic barrier, and thence starts on its course, about the island of Formosa, as the great warm stream of Japan. He first showed the striking analogy between this stream and that of the 20 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE North Atlantic, especially in their origin at latitude 23°, their being nearly 180 degrees of longitude apart,^ their general course, etc., etc. There is a branch of the Euro Shiwo, which shoots off northward near Kamschatka, and is felt 50 or 100 miles oft' this promontory; whilst close in shore, a cold current flows southward from the Arctic through the western part of Behring's Straits. On Kamschatka, the Kurile and Aleutian Islands, and on Alaska, great number of disabled Japanese junks must have been stranded in past centuries. Professor Davidson, who has had occasion to examine the Spanish, Eng- lish, Russian and American records of discoveries in this ocean, assures me that he has found mention of at least a dozen or more junks, wrecked on the coasts of Kamschatka, within a Comparatively recent period; and in the earlier descriptions of the Kurile Islands, and of the Kamschatka Peninsula, he says frequent mention is made of the wrecks of Japanese junks upon these coasts. Both winds and currents of the North Pacific assist in driving disabled Japanese junks around the great circle of the Kuro Shiwo. A junk disabled in the latitude of Tokio would be swept by alternate southwest and northwest winds, and the existing northeasterly current, towards the northwest coast of America. The distance from Cape King to San Francisco is about 4,500 nautical miles. We have here abundant proof of the track taken by these disabled vessels, by a study of their positions when found drifting at sea in the Pacific, at the mercy of winds and waves. For many, many centuries the coasting trade of Japan has employed a large fleet of junks in exchanging rice from their southern, for salt fish from their northern ports. Although it may be presumed that the large number of their vessels thus disabled and rendered unmanageable, undoubtedl}' founder in the heavy gales they experience; yet comparatively large numbers having cargoes suitable for food, and crossing a region subject to much raio, which is easily caught, are enabled to sustain life until eithei' picked up, or stranded somewhere on the American coast, or some island in their course. In the above sixty cases enumerated, there were, from 1613 to 1694, four cases; from 1710 to 1782, three cases; 1804 to 1820, six cases; 1831 to 1848, eleven cases; and since the rapid settlement of this coast in 1850 to 1876, only 28 years, we have a list of 36 wrecks reported. This apparent increase is not owing to their increased number, but solely to the fact, that increase of com- merce on the Pacific has distributed there a large fleet, whose presence has materially increased the chances of rescue to disabled vessels, and the likeli- hood of receiving reports from stranded wrecks. In addition to the list we have enumerated, are the Hawaiian traditions that several such junks were wrecked on Hawaii before the year 1778; to which add the wrecks from which the 18 Japanese were returned from Honolulu in 1834, also those from which came the junk full of shipwreck Japanese, who attempted to, and failed in returning, by Cheefoo to Nagasaki ; also the dozen additional ones, alluded to by Professor Davidson, as stranded on the penin- sula of Kamschatka, within a comparatively recent period; and the frequent mention of similar wrecks on the Kurile Islands. These all taken together, with yet others not fully verified, could scarcely have been less than forty NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 21 more, rendering it reasonable to suppose that fully one hundred wrecked Jap- anese junks, have been heard from, in one way or another, adrift upon the North Pacific, or stranded on the northwest coast of America or some outly- ing islands. In answer to the question of whether any of these waifs have ever found their way back to Japan from the American coast, in early times, I can say, that from historical data still extant, and from the personal relations of de- scendants of some of such returned voyagers, I have learned that in rare cases, occurring from 400 to 260 years ago, crews actucilly reached Japan with tidings of the American coast; and Professor Davidson informs me, that when recently in Japan observing the Transit of Venus, a very intelligent Japanese scholar, well known to me personally, related to him a well authenticated case within this century. Formerly such accounts were not allowed general jDub- licity*, because stoutly discountenanced by an ecclesiastical government, to whom such discoveries were quite as repugnant as were Galileo's to the me- dieval government of Kome. To the peaceful masses, the confines of their archipelago, were but recently the horizon of the world. The famous voyage of the Buddhist priest from China, at the beginning of the seventh cenlury, to a country called by him Fusang, (meaning, translated "to aid or cultivating mulberries,") was at the exact period when Japanese historians record their first official intercourse with China; and was probably reached by a coasting voyage along the western coast of Corea, thence along the northern coast of Niphon, around Yeso, and southerly, to the southeastern shore of Niphon, where mulberry trees were then cultivated abundantly, and which was undoubtedly the land he called Fusang. A careful study of the native records seems to indicate that his much mooted Chinese voyage could not possibly have extended to the American coast. Of the sixty cases here reported, 27 wrecks were encountered at sea, and the balance stranded, as follows: On the Aleutian Islands, 8; Coast of Kam- schatka, 6; Alaska, Oregon, Hawaiian and Brooks Islands, two each; Off San Diego, Acapulco, Nootka Sound, San Bonito, Queen Charlotte, Cedros, Prov- idence, Baker's, Stapieton, Ocean and Ladrone Islands, one each. In 23 cases where the actual number on board was named, they aggregated 293 persons; an average of 12 persons to a junk; ranging from 3 to 35 in in- dividual cases. Where definite statistics of the saved are given, we find 222 persons saved in 33 cases; an average of 6% persons in each disaster. On eight occasions, three persons each were rescued; in four cases, one person; and on four other cases, four persons; three times, eleven were saved; and twice each, 5, 12, 15, 17; and once each 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, were saved. By an examination of the above figures, we may estimate the probable ex- tent of Japanese blood infused into the Indian tribes around the shores of the North Pacific. Fifteen vessels mention having drifted helplessly at sea an aggregate of 106^ months, averaging a little over seven months each. Eleven cases report 122 deaths ; averaging a little over eleven deaths to each wreck. 22 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE It is sincerely hoped that the publication of this record, 'which has so inter- esting an ethnological import, may result in awakening Japan to the adop- tion of immediate steps in the great interest of a common humanity; for by improving the models of her vessels, and adopting those with sea-going qual- ities, this long record of disasters may speedily be abridged, if not wholly terminated. About a year since it became my duty to forward to Japan, half a dozen wooden models, full drawings and specifications of small vessels, varying from 40 to 200 tons, ordered by the Japanese government for the use of ship- builders, which the now enlightened government has recommended them to adopt, instead of their present form of junks. Thus the edict of 1639 has passed away forever, and young Japan is rising to take her equal place among the advancing nations of the world. Few are better aware than the scientist, of the manifold and inevitable dan- gers which attend all radical changes, when suddenly made; for success is a problem seldom solved without repeated trials and inevitable failures. But to-day, Japan is earnestly seeking to establish her national perpetuity, by fos- tering a discriminating intelligence among her people, and by encouraging general and liberal education among the masses. Thus she reverses in the most j)ractical manner, the other edict alluded to as promulgated in 1637. Her centuries of quiet seclusion are now embalmed with the history of the past, and she seeks true greatness, in an enlightened administration of her national affairs, and bids fair henceforth to reciprocate a generous friendship towards all members of the great brotherhood of nations, from whom she may now claim equal sympathy and neighborly protection. The great changes in Japan can not be better illustrated than in the fact, that it is now customary for the government of Japan, in common with all other nations, to present through their Foreign pflfice, some suitable reward in acknowledgement of kind service, to the captains of vessels who rescue their shipwrecked seamen. The Japanese Government have now in their navy ten war ships, five dispatch vessels, and five training ships, all steamers; and in their mercantile marine, one hundred and two steamers of various tonnage, aggregating 30,718 tons; also 32 modern sailing vessels built in foreign style of 7,346 total ton- nage. The great Pacific Ocean and its adjoining waters, under the impulse of this age of steam, is becoming the highway of an enterprising commerce, and steadily unfolds an attractive field of research to ethnological and linguistic archoeologists. Many young Japanese are already attracted to scientific pursuits, and their valuable technical as well as general results, are beginning to claim the attention of naturalists. Much valuable scientific work has been done by Japanese scholars since their early lessons received from Professor Wm. P. Blake and Professor Raphael Pumpelly; two eminent American scientists, whom I had the honor of selecting and engaging in the summer of 1861, on behalf of the government of Japan, to act as government Mineralogists and Mining Engineers. NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 23 A glorious opening now presents itself for some reliable and competent scholar, with pecuniary means at command, to collect a library of books re- lating to the Asiatic shores of the North Pacific ocean, as perfect in its way as is that of our great historian, Hubert H. Bancroft, relating to the native races of the American coast; and when as systematically classified, and as thoroughly studied, give to the world full and correct historical details and analytical classifications of all native races on the borders of Asia ; many of whose records and traditions must necessarily fade with radical changes in civilization, and soon pass beyond human reach. The splendid sunrise, now dawning in the Orient, offers golden opportun- ities, which should be promptly improved while available. Old ways are giving place to new, and invaluable treasures of antiquity, may be lost for- ever, or cast aside to linger for a generation or two, in the memories of the aged, before their shadowy forms become enshrouded in the misty veil of a forgotten past. The National Arms of Japan. ( Chrysanthemum . )

I might add that there are several Ethnographic records taken in the Northwest Coast area indicating shipwrecks that must have happened variously during the 1700s among the Chinooks and other tribes, indicating the sailors were taken from the wrecks, or more rarely allowed to intermarry and settle down, or else escaped into the hinterlands and were never heard of again, as taken down in memoir form in the 1800s, sometimes by Natives who said they were related to them. The literature is actually rather large, as you might guess. There is also evidence from Archaeology that the same or similar forms of bone harpoon-heads are found countinuously thorughout the lands between Jomonic Japan and Northern California on the other side.

Best Wishes, Dale D.
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