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Wednesday, 15 February 2012

A Neanderthal Skeleton in Chainmail, and Other Late Survivors

Different Views of the Neanderthal Knight from Poland

Neandertals from Portugal, Holland, Poland, etc
Neandertals from Portugal, Holland, Poland, etc.
Compiled by F. C.
Béla Lukács in The Lapedo Child, The Szeleta Men, And The Convergence To Leading Cultures []says:
"In 1908 Stolyhwo reported to Nature a Xth century Neanderthal from Southern ("Austrian") Poland, buried with iron armory, indicating Neanderthals in historical times":
News: Late Survival of Neanderthal Type
Nature(London) April 23, 1908, Vol. 77, p. 587
"In the February issue of the Bulletin International of the Academy of Sciences of Cracow, Mr. K. Stolyhwo describes a human skull dating from the historic period which presents strong indications of close affinity with the Spy-Neanderthal type, the so-called Homo primigenius, of the Paleolithic epoch. The skull, it appears, formed part of a skeleton from a tomb in which was also buried a suit of chain-armour, together with iron spear-heads, &c. In the great development of the supra-orbital ridges and of the notch at the root of the nasals, the skull, which was found at Nowosiolka, closely approximates to the Neanderthal type. It may be added that, in view of Prof. Solla's recent reference to the latter to the Australian stock, the occurrence in eastern Europe of a late survival of the same type is a matter of profound interest."
Lukács comments on it:
"In 1908 Neanderthals meant something less definite than now. If the bones were thick enough with curved longbones, with a strong mandible, heavy skull bones, receding frontal and strong torus, the individual went to primitive cavemen, more or less Neanderthals. Now, observe that Xth century AD was times of troubles everywhere in Europe, but definitely so on the Polish plains. (Polska comes from "pole" meaning "fields" or "plains", indeed with no natural borders on East and West.) If somebody was very strong, he was a great chief, warrior and leader. Such times preferred strong Neanderthaloids; they preferred true Neanderthals even more provided they still existed" "…Stolyhwo's Neanderthal knight either belonged a miraculously surviving small tribe or is a misclassification" "Was Stolyhwo's Neanderthal knight very strong, and who is he in Polish (or White Croatian) legends?"
And Lukács adds:
"South of the Ebro Mousterian [Neanderthals] survived for a long time… the Lapedo Child… seems half Neanderthal (he can be F1 hybrid… Is mule the analogy of the Lapedo Child, and maybe of the Shkul (or Skhul) individuals? Then Neanderthal/sapiens hybrids would be possible, but without any consequence. Przewalski and asinus are good species, they form disjoint populations, so horse genes cannot go over donkeys and vice versa. Mules are dead ends)" "…in the first days of 1999 Cidália Duarte excavated the Lapedo Child, alias Lagar Velho 1 [from Abrigo do Lagar Velho (it means roughly the Shelter of the Old Wine-press), in the Lapedo Valley, Portugal] " "…Or there are Neanderthal sites even later?" "Still, this [the Lapedo Neanderthal Child from Portugual] is the most convincingly documented "hybrid" skeleton, even including the Shkul (or Skhul) ones and Stolyhwo's Neanderthaloid knight" "The body was intentionally buried, red ochre was around and it seems that the boy was a member of a Gravettian tribe" [Refs.: Cidália Duarte & al.: The Early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo de Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia. Proc. Natl. Acad. USA 96, 7604 (1999), E. Trinkaus, J. Zilhao & Cidália Duarte: The Lapedo Child: Lagar Velho 1 and our Perceptions of the Neanderthals.; E. Trinkaus & J. Zilhao: Lagar Velho FAQ.; E. Trinkaus & J. Zilhao: A Correction to the Commentary of Tattersall and Schwartz Concerning The Interpretation of the Lagar Velho 1 Child. Some "late surviving Neanderthals" are discussed here]… Until the Lapedo Child was discovered, everything was simpler."
"…Is an open question if Neanderthals died out completely… Surviving Neanderthal pockets cannot be easily disproven. The satyr, mentioned in Plutarch's Sulla[Plutarchos: Sulla. In: Plutarchi Vitae parallellae, Teubnes, Leipzig, 1892], may or may not have been a surviving Neanderthal [classical Greeks believed in satyrs in the woods. Satyrs are generally man-like with minor "animal" traits. Now, according to Plutarch, during a campaign of Sulla (a Roman general), about 86 BC, a satyr was captured in a nymphaeon near Apollonia, Illyricum, and carried to Sulla. Interpreters asked him to get omens an such, but his speech was unintelligible between the sounds of horse and goat, so the general sent him away. Note that Plutarch does not use the story for anything. The captive does not tell omens; simply produces unintelligible noises. Now one can contemplate if satyrs were surviving Neanderthals, and then he can look for Neanderthal traces in Greece(Harvati K, Panagopoulou E, Karkanas P. First Neanderthal remains from Greece: the evidence from Lakonis. J Hum Evol. 2003 Dec; 45(6):465-73 (they report the discovery of a Neanderthal tooth (LKH 1) found in association with the Initial Upper Paleolithic from Lakonis I, adding to the small number of taxonomically diagnostic human fossils from early Upper Paleolithic European contexts. This finding indicates that, at least in southern Greece, the makers of early Upper Paleolithic assemblages were Neanderthals). Skeletal remains of the Neanderthal anthropological type were found also at Kalamakia Cave, in Mani, is a related quotation from Josephus: "…these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants" (Antiquities of the Jew. Book I, Ch. 3.1))]. Also look for Stolyhwo's medieval Neanderthal warrior in White Croatia; even in Nature (I mean the respectable journal). You may or may not take Alma, Yeti and other European Wildmen observations seriously; anyway they are not published in Nature…"
"H. G. Wells… had written in a widespread book that the Neanderthal was another species [distinct, different from the humans]… Wells himself writes that one scholar seemed to discover Neanderthal-like populations in Greece, another in Western Ireland [Wells H. G.: The Outline of History, Collier, New York. 1922. The book has a long printing history, appended, improved &c. in many times. The editio princeps seems to be at Somerset Publ. Inc., 1920]…conquered populations retreat to the ends of continents… the wildernesses of Thessaly or the westernmost of the Western Hibernia are hopeful locations… In the next two decades the great majority of scholars were at the opinion that Neanderthal was a separate species."
"In Palestine some skeletons were between the Neanderthal and modern characters, e.g.they were generally Neanderthal but with chin [G. H. R. von Koenigswald: Die Geschichte des Menschen. Springer, Berlin, 1960], especially the Shkul (or Skhul) skulls" "…it is hard to tell, exactly what are the Shkuls…[Fourteen skeletons were found in the Skhul cave, three complete, including the one in this photo. These skeletons had features that were intermediate between Neanderthal and Homo sapiens sapiens--Neanderthal brow, but well marked chin, slender long bones: See text and a picture:,]" "For "classical" Neanderthals there is always an obtuse angle ("no chin"). However the situation is not so simple at Eastern Neanderthals, as e.g. the Palestinian fossils or Shanidar, and also at "latest Neanderthals"… Some Shkul mandibles show acute angles (but they may be hybrids), one Shanidar mandible shows practically right angle."
"…Szeleta represents all the surviving Neanderthals ["Neanderthal man continues to be associated with the Middle Palaeolithic (including the Micoquian at Warendorf and Sesselfelsgrotte) as well as with the Jankovichian (otherwise known as the "Trans-Danubian Szeletian")", declares Philip Allsworth-Jones in The Szeletian Revisited,
(leaf-shaped stone points thought to have been the work of Neanderthals (Artifact drawing: the Lillafüred Foundation, Miskolc-Lillafüred, Hungary)], not western Castelperron. And we know the end of Castelperronian (Chatelperronian), we know the fading of Uluzzian, but the fate of Szeletian is not clear. Ten thousands years after the assumed extinction Epiaurignacians produced Szeletian leaf-points [M. Shupp: The Passage of the Neanderthals.]. Shupp's opinion is that they copied them. Possibly; but we simply do not know, from what time Szeletian tools were made by non-Szeletian population. Not surprising; we do not know the Szeletians. Only their tools." "Szeleta is the name of a cave in Hungary, near to the big city Miskolc(that is the Magyar name, the Slovakian is Miskovec), just east of its westernmost extension Lillafüred, at cca. 300 m level, near to the Szinva Creek, in the Bükk Mountains [detailed map: File F.: Kadic Ottokár bükki barlangkutatásai.]. The first tools were found in the city, in 1892. Then archeologists looked for the source and in 1906 they found a deposit of tools in the Szeleta Cave." "… 3 Neanderthal cultures (Hungarian Mousterian Neanderthal): Tata,Érd-Nagytétény and Subalyuk (or generally the Bükk). .. Tatais west of Budapest, not too far, Érd and Nagytétény are neighbours of each other, Érd a city and Nagytétény a southwestern district of Budapest, and Bükk is a mountain (up to 950 m) in northeastern direction above the river Tisza (Tisia, Theiss,& c.)" " Szeleta layers continue Moustérian traditions (of, say, Subalyuk). So either the Neanderthals survived long in Hungary, or the first Hungarian Homo sapiens learnt the industry from Neanderthals [Slovakians have Szeletian sites too and I found more about Szeletian on Internet in Slovakian than in Magyar + English… Also, in the last years people begin to call every Upper Paleolithic (UP) on the East Szeletian]" "…it is sure that in the Remete Upper Cave [in the northwestern corner of Budapest], Neanderthal lived, because 3 characteristic incisors were found. Now, on a shelf of the cave wall were 2 big cave bear canines plus a big Miocene sea-shell from the Tétény Plateau (cca. 20 km). Collecting spectacular sea-shell is no less symbolic than mining colorant [there was an ochre mine at Lovas (at the north coast of Lake Balaton, see: V. Domosi & I. Vörös: Data to an Evaluation of the Finds Assemblage of the Palaeolithic Paint Mine at Lovas. Folia Archaeologica 30, 7, 1979)]" "…Lower Szeletian must be purely Neanderthal" "…Jerzmanowician, Jerzmanowice or Jerzmanovka is a cave near to Kraków (Krakov/Krakkó/Krakau/Cracovia), Poland. No Hungarian and Pole (and definitely: no Southern Pole) would be surprised that Hungarian and Polish Neanderthals marched together. And indeed, it seems that Jerzmanowician is somewhat the northern analogue of Szeletian [J. K. Kozlowski & S. K. Kozlowski: Le Paléolithique en Pologne. Préhistoire d'Europe, 1996]… Neanderthals show regional differences in industry in Europe… In Hispania, beyond the Ebro Frontier where Neanderthals had no competitors and so could continue their sleepy Middle Palaeolithic existence for a time. In Croatia… the youngest full-blooded Neanderthal (up to now) is dug out [F. H. Smith & al.: Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G_1 and Velika Pecina Late Pleistocene human remnants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 12281, 1999.]."
"American anthropologist Madison Grant, wrote [in Chap. 2 M. Grant: The Passing of the Great Race. Scribner's Sons, New York, 1916]: "Along with other ancient and primitive racial remnants, ferocious gorilla like living specimens of the Neanderthal man are found not infrequently on the west coast of Ireland, and are easily recognized by the great upper lip, bridgeless nose [Lukács declares: "Madison Grant's Western Irish Neanderthals can be ruled out. We have seen that one of his Neanderthal characteristics was bridgeless nose. Now, Neanderthals are characterized just by big and well developed nose. And (apart from Stolihwo's knight) where are fresh Neanderthal bones?"], beetling brow and low growing hair, and wild and savage aspect... The...large upper lip, the low forehead, and the superorbital ridges are clearly Neanderthal characters. The other traits...are common to many primitive races. This is the Irishman of caricature...".
"…whereshould he look for surviving Neanderthals? The first, and professional, answer is: nowhere. And this answer is safe too. But if somebody read so much and he wants to get a very tentative answer, I give it, without any guarantee…cryptozoologists suspect the Caucasus and Mongolia… one can think about the Alps or the Caucasus…
New ape-like animals alive are still to be discovered, i.e., in Congo (the "lion killer", the big chimpanzee "of the land"): in China, the numerous teeth remains of the paleoprimate "Gigantopithecus":,,, Pictures from the first article: "A cave near the top of the rounded limestone tower at Liucheng, China has yielded three Gigantopithecusjawbones and nearly a thousand teeth" "The largest of the jaws, along with some of the teeth, are compared at with modern human remains." Thus concludes Dr. Ciochon: "Gigantopithecus is gone. Or is it? Following the publicity about our research in Vietnam, I have received several letters from veterans who say that they came face to face with huge, hairy apes in the Southeast Asian jungle when they were posted in Vietnam. And of all the theories advanced to provide a zoological identity for Bigfoot, the Abominable Snowman, and other elusive creatures, perhaps the most popular is that they are none other than Gigantopithecus, still alive in relict populations (relict populations of Neanderthal man run a close second). While these contemporary reports are probably false, we can contemplate the time when our remote ancestors did encounter the giant of all apes in the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia" (The original webpage, as you can see is the University of Iowa). This is stated "This giant ape was contemporaneous with archaic humans throughout its range… The true affinities of Gigantopithecus are still unknown and they will remain a mystery until diagnostic cranial remains are eventually found. Southern China is dotted with karstic fissures, some of which have yielded complete fossil skeletons of extinct Pleistocene mammals. There is a chance therefore that someday more complete remains of "Giganto" will be forthcoming. To learn more about Gigantopithecus read "Other Origins" by R. Ciochon et al,Bantam Books, 1990." of that page).
In the article of Lukács and in several other sites on the Internet, there is this mention of Professor Stolyhwo (who commended his student H. Hoyer to present their findings in a conference inspired by Mr. Bydlowski's previous works related to the "Neanderthal knight from Poland"). It is interesting to see in Stolyhwo's original document the emphasis (as it is) as undisputed fact, the world-wide flood (the deluge, deluvian, diluvial waters pouring down from heavens and covering the whole earth), even in the works of Schwalbe himself (who also believed in Neanderthals as a different species when compared to humans, and who baptized the Neanderthals as Homo primigenius).
Doug Sharp in his book The Revolution Against Evolution [,] made note of a Neanderthal specimen found buried in a tomb along with chain mail armor, Sharp first heard of it in a video by Dr. Michael Girouard Ape Men: Monkey Business Falsely Called Science produced in 1990 by the Institute for Creation Research. Ian Taylor also makes reference to it in his book In the Minds of Men, third edition. Ian Juby posted it in part on his website: Laurence Tisdall translated the original from French to English, here are some excerpts:
Cover of the original magazine:
The Nowosiolka skull considered as a proof of the existence in recent history of forms belonging to H. primigenius
[11. Czaszka z Nowosiólki, jako dowód istnienia w epoce historycznej form pokrewnych z H. primigenius.- Le cráne de Nowosiólka considéré comme preuve de l'existence á l'époque historique de formes apparentées á H. primigenius].
Memoir of M. Kazimierz Stolyhwo presented by M. H. Hoyer on the 7th of January 1908 [Mémoire de M. KAZIMIERZ STOLYHWO présenté par M. H. Hoyer m. e. dans la séance du 7 Janvier 1908] (Bulletin International De L'Académie Des Sciences De Cracovie [Anzeiger Der Akademie Der Wissenschaften In Krakau], 1908, p. 103)
Anthropology Laboratory and Museum of Industry and Agriculture of Varsovie.
"During the last several years I published several works concerning the existence, in Poland, of a Spy-Neanderthaloid type." "According to Mr. Schwalbe, the Spy-Neanderthal race existed only in the ancient deluvian period, after which it went extinct, as well as the transitional forms between H. primigenius [Neanderthal] and H. sapiens did not go beyond the Paleolithic. To the contrary, I was of the opinion that the Spy-Neanderthaloid types, having a softer Neanderthal-type structure, existed not only in the ancient deluvian, but also in the later prehistoric periods and can be observed even in the historic period… beyond the ancient deluvian…" "Mr. Schwalbe found that this way of looking at things was wrong and submitted a critique to the German Anthropological Congress of 1905, also in a memoir that appeared in the Zeitschrift f. Morphologie u. Anthropologie J. 1906. I've also been honored to write several letters on the subject. To solve the problems in question, I have submitted the materials previously studied to a new examination" "… the "scythic" cranium of Nowosiolka; it's my opinion that it is the one amongst all the skulls to be found at the Anthropological laboratory of Varsovie that contains the characteristics the most representative of the Spy-Neanderthal race."
Original initial description (in French):
"We have found archaeological facts concerning the skull in question in a memoir of Mr. Bydlowski "the Kourghans of Nowosiolka of the district of Lipowiec, Government of Kiev" (Swiatowit t. V. 1904); the kourghan from where the skull came is designated as number V. The skull of Nowosiolka must have belonged to a man that was thirty years old; concerning the period from which he came, we can determine this from the objects that were found with him in the tomb. Beside the skeleton, which was lying on his back, the head towards the west, was found a suit of armour complete with iron plates held together by rivets. On the other side were found two long spear points of which one had a flat side, the other was forged in a quadrangular bar. At the feet of the skeleton was a yellow clay goblet with a handle of ornate work, bordered on the inside with a black band; two parallel bands went around the inside of the goblet at the top. Beside the goblet was found a beautiful red clay amphora (antique vase) of conical shape, the bottom shaped obliquely. At the feet and the head of the dead were found two horse skeletons with the harness bridles and four bits the same as those that are used today. Concerning the harness we found only bits of leather and green and oxidized metal ornaments."
"The present memoire is solely dedicated to the study of the position that the Nowosiolka skull when compared to the H. primigenius group, which includes the skulls of Neanderthal, of Spy and of Krapina, and also taking into consideration other diluvianskulls. I will not concern myself with the question of the relationship between H. primigenius and H. sapiens, nor of the problem of where the limit is to be marked between these two groups."
"Not forgetting that the Nowosiolka skull does not belong to the ancient diluvian, nor the Paleolithic, but to recent history."
Here, to make it easier I have regrouped significant paragraphs together:
"…out of 47characteristics studied, the Nowosiolka skull possesses 23 which are identical to that of H. primigenius [Neanderthal, Neandertal], 11that are close to that of H. primigenius and only 13 that differ from H. primigenius. These results prove that the Nowosiolka skull possesses in some aspects a structure as primitive as the H. primigenius type and permits us to establish a morphological link between this skull and those of Spy-Neanderthal-Krapina."
34 Neanderthal characteristics of the Nowosiolka knight:
The full pages that contain the figures are: seen by the bottom) and lateral), another view) upper diagram) back)
1) "… the thickness of the eyebrowsof the Nowosiolka skull is very close to that of the Krapina skulls. It is true that the lateral part of the eyebrows are a little less thick than their equivalents in the Krapina skulls (with the exception of one of the fragments) but, in return, the median parts are thicker. In short, the eyebrows of the Nowosiolka skull, thanks to their non-interrupted continuity to the frontal-cheek suture, also in considering their thickness can be designated as tori supraorbitales and not as arcus supraciliaris, as is also recognized by M. Schwalbe based upon a photograph that I had the honour of sending him. Concerning the eyebrows, the Nowosiolka skull is quite different from the H. sapiens type and can be joined to the Spy-Neanderthal-Krapina group"
2) "…On the Nowosiolka skull the structure [the level of the zygomatic eyebrow] is exactly the same as that described on the Krapina C skull. Therefore, in terms of the zygomatic eyebrow on the Nowosiolka skull it is not different that that found in H. primigenius."
"3) The index of the convexity of the cerebral part…, 4)the index of the position of the bregma…, 5) the Convex index of the frontal arch A: [diameter: nasal-bregma x 100 / curve: nasal-bregma] the diameter of the nasal-bregma…, 6) the nasal-bregma curve…, 7) the index A of the convexity of the frontal arch…, 8) the fronto-parietal index [minima width of front x 100 / maxima width of front]…, 9) theindex of the convexity of the parietals [diameter of the sagittal suture x 100 / curve of the sagittal suture]…, 10) the index of the parietals [sagittal curve of the parietals x 100 / sagittal curve of the front]…, 11) the height of the inferior jaw index [height of the jaw at the 2-me molar x 100 / height of the jaw at the symphysis]…, 12) the height of the jaw at the symphysis (…numerous diluvian skulls also have some height at the symphysis that goes beyond the upper molar. M. Gorjanowie-Kramberger considers that when a similar structure is seen in recentH. sapiens, it is an atavic variation. This exists also on the Nowosiolka skull)…, 13) the index of the height of the inferior jaw…,14) the thickness of the main part of the symphysis of the lower jaw of the Nowosiolka skull is within the range of H. primigenius."
15) "…with the Nowosiolka skull, the configuration of the zygomatico-maxilla suture is similar to that of the Krapina skull; the canine dimples are also missing. Therefore, it can be said that the configuration of the zygomatico-maxilla of the Nowosiolka skull does not differ from the same structure of H. primigenius."
"…16) the interorbital diameter…, 17) the biorbital diameter…, 18) the interorbital index…, 19) the external biorbital diameter…, 20) the frontal minima width…, 21) the frontal biorbital index of the Nowosiolka skull does not go beyond the dimensions of H. primigenius."
22) "Index B of the convexity of the frontal arch: [diameter: glabella-bregma x 100 / curve: glabella-bregma] (…is more important than the Index A, mentioned above, by which the size depends, to a certain degree, to the position more or less depressed of the nasal cavity)… of the Nowosiolka skull does not go beyond the range of H. primigenius."
23) "It is also to be noticed that the Nowosiolka skull contains a persistent frontal suture for most of it's length, and that the light bulges that accompany each side contribute to produce the effect of convexity fo the frontal arch when seen on the photograph of the skull in question in it's norma lateralis."
"24) The bregmatic angle…, 25) the angle: lambda - glabella - inion (l. g. i.)…,26) the diameter of the frontal glabello - cerebral index [diameter: frontal glabello x 100 / diameter frontal cerebral]…, 27) the index of the position of the bregma [diameter g. w. x 100 / diameter glabella-inion]the glabella-inion diameter…, 28) the cephalic index[maxima width of the skull x 100 / maxima length of the skull]…, 29) the maxima width (euryon - euryon)…, 30) the cephalic index…, 31)the index of the height of the cranial arch in relationship with the glabella-lambda diameter [diameter k. p. (height of the cranial arch) x 100 / glabella-lambda diameter]…, 32) the occipital convexity index[diameter: lambda-opisthion x 100 / curve: lambda-inion-opisthion]…, 33)the akanthion-prosthion diameter of the Nowosiolka skull are close to that of H. primigenius."
34) "Teeth size… the Nowosiolka skull has some teeth of considerable size of which some correspond to the Krapina skull. We notice that in the case of the Nowosiolka skull a reduction in teeth size and a reduction in the whole dental system since the wisdom teeth have not yet appeared. Concerning the teeth size, the Nowosiolka skull approaches that of H. primigenius."
13 Non Neanderthal characteristics of the Nowosiolka knight:
After mentioning its 34 Neanderthal characteristics. Let's see the 13 differences next.
1) "The anterior mandible angle is not within the range of H. primigenius."
"2) The angle of frontal convexity (angle A) (n. r. b)…, 3) the angle B (g. e. b.) more important than the last one by which the opening is dependant to a certain degree of the position more of less depressed of the nasal opening…, 4) the diameter of the frontal cerebral…, 5)the angle of the protrusion of the part of the frontal cerebral (a. t. h.)… (the small size of this angle of the Nowosiolka skull must certainly have as a cause the median convexity of the frontal produced by the persistence of the frontal suture)…, 6) the index of the convexity (curve)of the cerebral part of the frontal [diameter of the cerebral part x 100 /curve of the cerebral part]…, 7) the height of the cranial arch in relationship to the glabella-inion diameter (Kalottenhöbe)…, 8)the height of the cranial arch in relationship with the glabella-lambda diameter (Lambda-Kalottenhöbe)…, 9) the lambda angle(l. g. i.)…, 10) the angle of the opisthion (o. i. g.) of the Nowosiolka skull differs from those of H. primigenius."
11) "The index of the height of the cranial arch in relationship to the glabella-inion (Kalottenhöbe index) [diameter c. h. (cranial arch height) x 100 / diameter: glabella-inion] of the Nowosiolka skull is outside the range of H. primigenius."
12) "The frontal angle of the Nowosiolka skull differs from that of H. primigenius. However, it is to be noted that closeness of this measurement with the Brüx skull which is considered by M. Schwalbe, in terms of the frontal angle measurements as being transitional between H. primigenius and H. sapiens [M. Schwalbe admits the existence of transitional forms between H. primigeniusand H. sapiens but according to him, these forms do not possess the characteristic traits of H. primigenius and they probably belong to the middle diluvian because they rarely go beyond the Paleolithic]"
13) "The glabello-cerebral index of the Nowosoilka skull is beyond the range of H. primigenius. M. Schwalbe came to the conclusion that this index is very important and that it permits us to mark a limit between the H. primigenius and H. sapiens groups which are to date not linked by the existence of any intermediate form. However… the skulls of Brünn, of Egisheim and even that of Pithecanthropusconsist of similar transitional forms… the existence of intermediate forms and the reality that Pithecanthropus is of such form concerning the glabello-cerebral index, considerably diminishes the value that M. Schwalbe attributes to the index in question."
One Table with basic comparisons:
"The analysis of the Nowosiolka skull has shown that it contains numerous characteristics which are only associated with H. primigenius. Several very important, such as the tori supraorbitalis, the low level of the zygomatic eyebrow, the considerable thickness of the mandible. Also, the Nowosiolka skull according to the bregmatic angle considerably approaches that of the Brüx skull, which according to M. Schwalbe, constitutes a transitional form [my comment: can we consider the "transitional forms" as sterile hybrids?] between H. primigenius and H. sapiens."
"In conclusion, the facts cited earlier demonstrate:
1. That morphological forms belonging to H. primigenius existed not only in the Paleolithic, but also in later eras as well as recent history,
2. That transitional forms between H. primigenius and H. sapiens contain distinctive traits that differ from H. primigenius. It is possible that the opinion of M. Schwalbe, that H. primigenius existed only during the ancient diluvian is true only for regions in southern Europe where the Spy-Neanderthal-Krapina type did not live beyond the Paleolithic; but this can not be applied to all of Europe. We must assume that this race was progressively pushed towards the north, where by this fact, it could survive much more longer than in the south of Europe."
This article also has been referenced as: Stolyhwo K. (1908): Le crâne de Nowosiolka considéré com preuve de l'existence à l'époque historique de formes apparentées à H. primigenius.Bulletin International de l'Académie des Sciences de Cracovie, (1908)103-26.
Russians were among the first ones to try to understand Neandertal-like skulls and bones in historical times. See for example: Russian. First attempt to translate:
More or less, there is that, from the book "Boris Fedorovich Porshnev. On the beginning of human history (problems in paleo-psychology) Moscow 1974. Ed thought (Мысльin Russian), 487 p.
"In 1873 the French anthropologists Katrfazha and Ami (Катрфажа и Ами) on analyzing remains from Edisgeyma (Эдисгейма), from Gurdana (Гурдана) and others, just as a jaw from the Arsi-shr- hens (Арси-сюр-Кур , and later from the la of nolett Ла Нолетт) pulled the line of Neandertals from the younger time, to our days, to include with them bone remainders with even weaker expressed neandertaloid special features, saying that Neanderthals are rarely found here and there or detected underground, not only in ancient time, but also up to our days. In a number of their examples they clearly were mistaken. However, who knows, perhaps anthropology in the course of time will again thoroughly reexamine their series and will reveal in them, not only their few errors. According to their idea, the Neanderthal features can be strongly smoothed, effaced, but still be located on that side of the boundary, which separates contemporary physical type people from that substantially different group. Besides Katrfazha and Ami, there were numerous others that proposed to the attention of the world of anthropological science, international congresses included, the skulls of late or even completely contemporary origin, which had some neandertaloid (and pithekoid) features. Among them, at least one must recognize Polish anthropologist K. Stolyhwo. In 1902 and 1904 he published reports about the finding in the scythian barrow near the village of Nowosiolka(Novoselka, Novoselok) of the Kiev, province of the skeleton, which belongs, on a number of features, as indicative of the Neanderthal type. The renowned German anthropologist Mr. Schwalbe appeared with the criticism in 1906, proving, that the skull from Nowosiolka was not identical to the skulls of West European classical Neanderthals, which died out in the prehistoric time. Then Stolyhwo in two articles of 1908 gathered data form many other anthropologists, which proved, that in the historical time on the Earth remained the form, which it is possible to name "Postneandertaloide" which in a morphological sense differed both from the geological European classic Neanderthal, and from Homo sapiens. Mr. Schwalbe did not continue the straight controversy. In the same 1908 published his main work, where by Neanderthal men he acknowledged only the classical prehistorical Neanderthal.However, Stolyhwo(Столыгво , Stolygvo), during the subsequent years again returned to his concept, developing and deepening it. This is how he formulated his conclusion of his article published in 1937: "besides preneandertaloid and classical representatives of the Neanderthal race, there are remaining descending neandertaloid forms, known up to now, relate to the periods by later than Mousterian (мустьерский,must'erskiy), to upper Pleistocene, and also to the later prehistory, proto-history, and even in contemporary times. To the facts assembled by Stolyhwo, at present it is possible to add indications of many other bone remains of neandertaloid type obtained in the layers of Upper Pleistocene and Holocene (contemporary geological epoch), including the historical time. However, there are also neandertaloid findings of bones of very young geological age on the spaces from Tibet to West Europe, in particular in Africa [beginning from the neandertaloid skulls from Florisbada (Флорисбада)and Kep-Fletsa (Кэп-Флетса)]."
Boris Fedorovich Porshnev (1905-1972) had a most striking and unorthodox thesis, which is that what at present are termed H. neanderthalensis, or even H. sapiens neanderthalensis, were actually animals, not men… that they were the highest animals possible... today's relic hominoids [alive] are yesterday's Neanderthals... in the past all or some Neanderthalers made stone tools and used fire, while today none, or few, of their relic descendants do so... Neanderthalers have morphological features indicative of a so-called retrogressive evolution... Porshnev pointed out (Current Anthropology15:450), that at least some of the Neanderthaloid skeletons found in more recent strata and looked upon as "pseudo-Neanderthal" may be real Neanderthalers, among them the Neanderthaloid Podkumok (Caucasus)skullcap, which is of as recent origin as the Bronze Age, and the remains dealt with by Stolyhwo (1937)... Europe has been a habitat of hominoids in historic times and... these hominoids have been none other than relics of the Neanderthalers!"
Stolyhwo's Reference Quoted by B. F. Porshnev is:
K. Stolyhwo: Les prénéanderthaloïdes et les postnéanderthaloïdes et leur rapports avec la race de Néanderthal. Bull. Ethnol. du Musée d'Ethnographie de Ljubljana. 10, 147-158 (1937) [the title also quoted as: "Les praenéandertahloides et les postnéanderthaloides et leur rapport avec la race du Néanderthal". And as "Les praeneanderthaloides et les postneanderthaloides et leur rapport avec la race du Neanderthal" (Porshnev refers to Stolyhwo's conclusion on page 158).]
We can see that this is a different reference that the one that we are featuring here from 1908, this being done in 1937, 29 years later.
In other Website Stolyhwo's "Neandertal Knight" is reported as: (
"Dès 1908, l'anthropologue polonais Kasimierz Stolyhwo a annoncé la découverte d'un certains nombre d'ossements "néandertaliens" datant de l'extrême fin de la préhistoire, voire du moyen âge (à Poszuswie, en Pologne, qu'il osait attribuer au dixième siècle de notre ère, et Novossiolka, près de Kiev, où le squelette reposait avec des débris d'armure en fer). Personne ne semble pressé d'en reprendre l'étude. Et d'autres ont été trouvé depuis entre autres à Klapeida en Lituanie, en Carélie, près de Moscou, à Podkoumok (dans le Caucase) en 1918. Ces derniers, réduits à une calotte crânienne, ont d'ailleurs bel et bien été considérés, sans réserve, par les meilleurs spécialistes de l'époque, comme néandertaliens. Car on les croyait datés d'une période convenable pour les néanderthaliens, à la suite d'une erreur d'un géologue. Et puis un jour, en 1937, on s'est aperçu qu'ils dataient en fait de l'âge du bronze. Plus de détail chez Boris Porchnev et Bernard Heuvelmans, "L'Homme de Néanderthal est toujours vivant", Plon, 1974." Jean Roche (Des fossiles qui n'ont rien compris).
Approximated translation using
"Since 1908, Polish anthropologist Kasimierz Stolyhwo claimed the discovery of surprisingly recent neanderthal-type bones in [TWO] studies (Poszuswie [?], Poland, 10th century of our era, and Novosiolka [Novossiolka], near Kiev, where the skeleton has been found with an iron armor). Nobody seemed in a hurry to pursue simiar studies, however such "anomalies" have been found since then at Klapeida in Lithuania, in Carelia (Karelia), near Moskow, at Podkumok (Podkoumok, in the Caucasus) in 1918 (being this finding limited to the top of the skull and has been indeed considered, without reserve by the best of the specialists of the time as being similar to Nenderthal) etc. Because they were believed to be wrongfully dated. But again, in 1937, Stolyhwo confirmed them to be dated in fact from the bronze age. More details in: Boris Porshnev and Bernard Heuvelmans, "L'Homme de Neanderthal est toujours vivant", Plon, Paris, 1974." Jean Roche (On the fossils that nobody understood).
In the same website we can see interesting old findings in North-America:
Discovery of an early type of man in Nebraska
Barbour, E.H., and Ward, H.B.; Science, 24:628, 1906
In a circular moundrecently opened on a Loess hill north of Florence, near Omaha, Nebraska, various skeletal parts, and eight human skulls of a primitive type were exposed. The credit of the discovery belongs to Mr. Robert F. Gilder, of Omaha, who described and figured the skulls in the World Herald, October 21.
The skulls of the lower layer are low-browed and inferior, the superciliary ridges being thick and protruding, the distance through the temples narrow, and the frontal eminences being as feebly developed as in Neanderthal man. The skulls are brachycephalic, and extremely narrow in transverse diameter through the temples, expanding rapidly at the parietals.
In shape and size the mandible agrees well with that of modern man, although the following marked differences are to be noted ; the bone, particularly in the region of the symphysis,is far heavier, the muscular scars more prominent, and the third molar in each case is ground to the very gum, while the second and third are ground in a diminishing ratio. The canines are weak and scarcely distinguishable from the incisors, and the space between the molars and the base of the coronoid is wide.
The femora, which is massive, manifests an interior curvature more prononced than ordinary, and in cross section they appear triangular through the great development of the linea aspera, all muscular scars and tuberosities are noticeably prominent.
This finding is not the faked one based on a teeth of an extinct peccary, the so-called "Nebraska-man":
Ancient skull discovered near Santa Barbara
Anonymous,Nature, 112:699, 1923
According to a telegram from New York which appeared in the Times of October 31, an expedition of the Smithsonian Institution, of which Dr. J. P. Harrington is the head, has discovered, at Santa Barbara, in California, two human skulls for which a very high antiquity is claimed. They are said to belong to an era far earlier than that of Neanderthal man. The evidence upon which this claim is based would appear to be a low forehead and very pronounced eyebrow ridges. The mouth cavity is extremely large and the walls of the skull very thick. They are said to be twice the thickness of ancient Indian's skulls. Until more detailed evidence is available, judgment must be suspended as to the likelihood of this claim to a high antiquity being substantiated ; but it may be pointed out that skulls exhibiting Neandertaloid characteristics, especially in the pronounced eyebrow ridge, have been found in more than one occasion in the United States. Although a great age has been attributed to them, upon further examination they have been pronounced to be merely a relatively modern variety of the Indian type. It is significant that the new Santa Barbara skulls were associated with a material culture, implements, fish-hooks, etc. which is said to show a great advance upon any culture that can be associated with Neanderthal man.
Comment of the Author of that Website: once again the writer never imagines that the owner of bones could be different from the owner of tools.
Other site says, related to those bones that:
Two Neanderthal-like skulls were found in Santa Barbara, California in 1923. Researchers recognized that they were just Indian skulls.
Other sites related to Santa Barbara’s ancient men:
And, near the location of the last links, recently appeared that "Mammoth remains unearthed at California construction site":
Maybe human bones are also to be found in those areas... But, how are going to be 'officially' re-interpreted many upcoming ancient human remains in America?
Fragment showing ‘Ancient skulls discovered in Minnesota and in Brazil’.
By Ross Hamilton and Patricia Mason (2001), quoting Prof. Vine Deloria.
"Concealing evidence that conflicts with accepted theory is common scientific skullduggery. For years the Smithsonian Institution has been accused of hiding in storage vaults things it doesn't like. In 1968 two Neanderthal-like skulls with low foreheads and large brows were found in Minnesota. As for dating, University of Minnesota scientists said they were reluctant to destroy any of the material, although carbon-14 testing only requires the burning of one gram of bone. They were sent to the Smithsonian. Later Dr. Lawrence Angel, curator of physical anthropology at the institution, said he had no record of the skulls there, although he was sure they were not lost. We have a right to wonder whether some professional scientists mightn't find a really early date for the bones distressing. Why distressing? Because no true Neanderthal remains have ever been recognized by any Federal authorities as originating on the North American continent, what to say of the Americas in general. Is there yet today a conflict between established theory and what has been physically discovered?"
This ones, if real, seem to be different from the next one [taken from: Ivan T. Sanderson. The Search for Bigfoot: Monster, Man, or Myth? by Peter Byrne (New York: Pocket Books, 1976)]:
See also the biographies of Mark A. Hall and Bernanrd Heuvelmans:
And the criticists:
And the replies against such criticisms ("The Minnesota Iceman", by Dr. Wolf Henner Fahrenbach, Ph.D., who also translated it from German to English, Beaverton Oregon - January 2004):
And "Crypto - Electronic Text Version. Hominology Special Number 1. April 7, 2001", for the 13th Annual Bigfoot Conference [there it mentions the same Dr. Fahrenbach as member of a panel and a reference to other of his statistical works] (130 pages, 2.1 M in PDF):
Other site says, related to Neanderthal-like bones in America:
Toca da Esperanca, Brazil excavation suggests pre-Neanderthal man existed in the Americas... Others suggest man predates these findings... Most do not embrace these findings.
To see pictures from other skull (calotte) from "Lagoa Santa", Minas Gerais, Brazil (Figure 4: Supraorbital ridge is estimated to be 20, 19 and 16 MM thick. Figure 5: Note thick eyeridges, smooth skull cap. P. 128, in PDF):[221 pp. 6.4M]
Notes taken from what Ray Crowe wrote there in 2002:
Early Man in Oregon, the finding of two separate beetle-brows from the ancient Warner Valley with lithic artifacts (an original picture included).
Dr. Alan L. Bryan, from the University of Alberta who documented several findings in America, stated that those "beetle-browed" skulls were Neanderthal-like or like those of the Rhodesian Man, or even more closely related to a North Chinese skull: Jinniushan [Bryan AL. A fossilized calotte with prominent brow ridges from lagoa Santa, Brazil. Curr. Anthropol. Jun 1984. Bryan AL. The First Americans. National Geographic. Sept. 1979.]
Also George F. Carter in "Earlier Than You Think. A Personal View of Man in America" (1980), describes other New World skulls: "The descriptions of the skulls that appear to be from early situations and startlingly similar, they are all described as beetling-browed long headed, slab-sided, pentagonal or roof-shaped skulls. The University of Nebraska excavated a skull fragment in Cedar County, Nebraska, that was unusual enough that they took special care with it and asked Hrdlicka to look it over, since it was a 'low type' skull, meaning a relatively primitive skull. In Hrdlicka's word, it is 'intermediate between that of a modern male and the neandertalers'
Crowe remarks "Hrdlicka, in the 1930's at the Smithsonian Institute, was a tough-minded disbeliever in the repeated and flimsy claims for early humans in the Americas."
To see the rest of the editions of Crypto (in PDF):
A recent paper concludes that the final version provided by Protsch, may also be a fraud:
Investigation of a fossilized calotte from Lagoa Santa, Brazil, by EDXRF. Anjos MJ et al. X-Ray Spectrometry. 21 Feb 2005. "The small differences in the relative amount of each element, especially the Ca/Sr ratio, in different parts of the calotte reinforce the hypothesis that the calotte had been mounted with pieces from different origins"
“Anthropologist Resigns In Dating Disaster”:
“Ancient Men in America?”
“In the New World, not only is there evidence indicating the presence of fully modern man at dates unacceptable by the standard archaeological views, but there is also evidence of primitive man of the homo erectus category. For example, Canadian anthropologist Alan Lyle Bryan, editor of the book Early Man in America, discovered in Lagoa Santa, Brazil, a skullcap with a low, receding forehead, thick walls, and exceptionally massive browridges. These features make it practically indistinguishable from skulls of the homo erectus type. Shown photographs of the Lagoa Santa skull, several American physical anthropologists found it impossible to believe it could have come from America. Nonetheless, Bryan supported his claim by citing other published works containing descriptions of similar fossil finds in the same area of Brazil. Challenging accepted opinion, he argued that anatomically primitive forms of man spread all over the world in very ancient times, evolving independently on different continents into anatomically modern man. The skull was placed in a Brazilian museum but later mysteriously disappeared." (14)”
(14) Alan Lyle Bryan, "An Overview of Paleo-American Prehistory from a Circum-Pacific Spectrum," Early Man in America, Alan Lyle Bryan, ed. (Edmonton, Alberta: Archaeological Researches International, 1978), pp. 318--327.
Next, an excerpt from possible fossilized, petrified human bones:
The evidence seems to suggest:
“The Carboniferous period is vastly more recent than conventionally dated [...which] indicates there hasn't been time for evolution.”
“It would appear that all of the dating schemes we are familiar with are simply FUBAR, standard army jargon meaning "Fouled Up Beyond Any Recognition". ”
To do a detailed scientific study of the findings of Ed Conrad and of Dr. Dale H. Peterson, etc., the most numerous samples as possible, must need to be analyzed.
Recently a most detailed and careful indexed study just started to be done on petrified wood:
Witke K, Gotze J, Rossler R, Dietrich D, Marx G. Raman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopic investigations on Permian fossil wood from Chemnitz--a contribution to the study of the permineralisation process. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2004 Oct;60(12):2903-12
From the Abstract, the next are interesting observations showing that in:

"Silicified wood... a secondary mineralisation of hydrothermalorigin was recognized..."

"...after the primary silicification step a secondary mineralisation step initiated by hydrothermal processes, seems to have taken place at probably slightly higher temperatures."

Put the bold words near with your last ISCID posting .

In a picture of the location, you can see that the trees are standing-up, like in Yellowstone:

Then notice the use of the word "quartz":

"The resulting silica matrix consists of phanerocrystalline and microcrystalline alpha-quartz as well as microcrystalline moganite, both partially associated with iron oxides."

"Dadoxylon sp. is a prominent example for parallel permineralisation by alpha-quartz and fluorspar, which is outstanding for the Chemnitz Petrified Forest."

And in:

"The seed fern Medullosa... Raman spectroscopy revealed that these carbonaceous particles are of an anthracite structure. For experimental confirmation coal samples of different rank, especially anthracite from different geological times and localities, were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The remaining pith of the vascular bundles is white-coloured and consists of alpha-quartz and moganite, whereas surrounding tracheides exhibit white and reddish coloured parts. The reddish parts, mainly found in the rays, additionally contain alpha-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 among the SiO2 polymorphs of alpha-quartz and moganite."

In this last paragraph, notice twice the words "anthracite".

I can see that the pattern there, which holds similitude with Ed Conrad's findings is that that paper finally recognized, at last, that mineralisation of hydrothermal origin is possible, as well as that the quartz formation is possible inside organic tissues from anthracite deposits.
Those aspects were the main criticisms against Conrad's findings, and until now, science is coming forward, at least on analyzing petrified wood to recognize such reality.
Before and still, only 'traders' use to exploit financially (smile) the vast and many "Treasures of the Flood":
I wish to see, in the near future, the possibility to do the same, not as McRae did it, of only one external flank of only one petrified human(oid)? bone sample, but as I say, of as much samples as it can be possible.
'Kudos' for Ed Conrad on his going, from the very beginning of his findings, which he did not only one, but so many times, to the scientific community to ascertain his findings, until he got so tired of the dismissal of the official scientific establishment. That is a deep-black page for the history of the official USA science on the how is that they treated him (other country even has an exhibit of his findings in a Museum).
For example, you can see the Smithsonian documented letters that point against the Smithsonian as the main 'political' campaigner vs. the findings of Ed Conrad:
Next are, for a real scientific pursuit, some trends from the heart of America (by David Lines):
A detail from the same page:
The color picture used in the same page, depicting a fossil worm (evidence of fossil soft tissue):
To compare it with fossilized fucoids:
Dr. Dale H. Peterson, M.D., of Oklahoma City, who examined the sectioned specimen by means of x-ray, CT Scan and MRI. Dr. Peterson concluded in a letter to Dennis Petersen from CA, dated March 27, 2002: "It is my professional opinion that the fossil unearthed at Glen Rose, Texas, is, in fact, a petrified human finger":
More, independent and related findings (by Ed Conrad):
Plus, just some more examples:
A full set of links of petrified humans and petrified animals:
More on presumed petrified humans:
“Reck's Controversial Find”
“Regarding evidence for the extreme antiquity of modern man, it should be noted that the extent to which it challenges the standard views is matched by the degree of vehemence with which the evolutionary establishment tends to reject it. One example of such controversy is provided by a find made in 1913 by Dr. Hans Reck in East Africa's famous Olduvai Gorge.
Dr. Reck discovered a skeleton of fully modern man in strata that made it contemporary with Peking Man and Java Man, supposedly distant ancestors of homo sapiens. This find inspired much controversy, but when the famous Louis Leakey visited the site in 1931 with Reck, he concluded the skeleton was at least a half million years old. (15)
Opponents continued to argue that it was an intrusive burial, that it was a man of recent origin buried in the ancient strata of rock. But Reck insisted that he had taken adequate care to rule out this interpretation. The strata above the skeleton had been undisturbed, he claimed. Yet other investigators charged they had found material from higher strata in the rock matrix in which the skeleton was embedded. In the face of the conflicting testimony, Reck and Leakey withdrew their claims.
In 1973, Dr. Reiner Protsch of the department of biology and anthropology of the J. W. Goethe University in Frankfurt, West Germany, made a report on radiocarbon dating of Reck's skeleton. Since the skull was considered too valuable to destroy for radiocarbon dating, Protsch wanted to use other bones. Unfortunately all of the skeleton except the skull had mysteriously disappeared from the Munich museum in which it had been kept! Some fragmentary portions of ribs, long bones, and vertebrae were later produced and were thought to have come from the originally complete skeleton. As a precaution, both the skull and the fragments were tested for nitrogen content to see if they were actually from the same skeleton. The results of the test were similar enough to not rule out the possibility that this may have been the case. The subsequent radiocarbon dating gave an age of 17,000 years for these bones, which according to Protsch means that the skeleton was buried by digging down from a land surface in the middle of bed 5 at Olduvai Gorge. (16) This has been taken as final proof that Reck's skeleton is an intrusive burial and is much younger than originally thought." ”
References (notice that the article of Protsch is a faked fabrication, as has been recently discovered many of his mishandlings):
(15) L.S.B. Leakey, Arthur T. Hopwood, Hans Reck, "Age of the Oldoway Bone Beds, Tanganyika Territory," Nature, Vol. 128, No. 3234 (October 24, 1931), 724.
(16) Reiner Protsch, "The Age and Stratigraphic Position of Olduvai Hominid I," Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 3 (1974), pp: 379--385.
Then, from the website of Doug Sharp:
Living Neanderthal Man
Nature(London) Dec. 8, 1910, Vol 85, p. 176.
"In the Phillippine Journal of Science for June (1910), Dr. R.B. Bean, of the Anatomical Laboratory, Manila, reports the discovery of a living specimen in the island of Luzon which he believes to bear close relationship to the Palaeolithic type represented by the Neanderthal skull. The massive lower jaw with its square ramus and receding chin, the low cephalic index (73-68), heavy brow ridges, rounded orbits, large nasal apetures and high nasal index (102-2), combined with small stature (156-8 cm.), muscular frame and short femur, all approximate to a form similar to that of the antediluvian man of Europe, Homo heidelbergenius. Dr. Bean in the same issue of the Journal continues his study of the racial anatomy of the people of Taytay, dealing here with the women, whom he finds to be more primitive than the men, and closely resembling the women of Siberia. The Blend type is largely primitive in character, and the Australoid variety comes between the Iberian and the primitive."
Comment of Doug Sharp: Creationists find the implications of this type of thinking extremely offensive. These researchers in effect treated these people as living "specimens" as if they were observing flora and fauna of a strange new world. This racist belief logically extended from their evolutionary viewpoint… the [biased] belief that women were inferior to men was quite blatantly expressed… [neither] Skin color, along with other racial characteristics, should never be a reason to separate us from the kinship of being part of mankind, God's creation.
Do we have some more information regarding Prof. Stolyhwo?
Let's see:
Brief Notes on Recent Anthropological Explorations under the Auspices of the Smithsonian Institution and the U. S. National Museum. By Ales Hrdlicka. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 2, No. 1. (Jan. 15, 1916), pp. 32-37.
Search for Neolithic Human Remains in Southwestern Russia- It is well known (See bibliography in A. A. Ivanovskiji, Ob Antropológiceskom Sostavé Naselenii Rossii, Moskva, 1904) that Southwestern Russia and particularly the province of Ukrania, is rich in mounds or 'kurgans,' which yield human remains dating from the early historic back into the neolithic period. It is the region which in the past has yielded bones colored red (See Hrdlicka's The Painting of Human Bones, etc. Smithsonian Inst. Rep. For 1904.), and also some crania of most interesting form, partly transitional with those of geological antiquity. The exploration was entrusted to Prof. Kazimir Stolyhwo, Chief of the Anthropological Laboratory at Warsaw, and was restricted to the district of Kiev, in the vicinity of the villages of Szulaki, Puhaczowka, Chejtowa, Zywotowka, Tackowica, Zacisze, and Horodnica.
The total number of Kurgans explored was thirty-three, twenty-seven of which yielded human remains, which, however, in the majority of cases had been disturbed. The mounds averaged close to 90 feet in diameter, the range being from approximaltey 40 to nearly 300 feet; and nearly 5 feet in height, or from less than a foot to nearly 8 feet. Most if not all of the tumuli were originally higher, being reduced in the course of time by agriculture. The tops of several of the mounds were covered with stone, which must have been brought from a distance. The number of human burials encountered in these mounds was upwards of 70. They were located generally about or not far from the center of the mound and at varying depths, from a few inches to nearly 15 feet beneath the summit. Some of the burials were plainly intrusive. The old burials included individuals of both sexes and all ages. The bodies were as a rule in moderately contracted position. In the majority of cases the bones were colored more or less red, due to the inclusion in the graves of red ochre. The mode of buria differed. In one mound it was by incineration of several individuals; in others a fossa had been made in the surface of the ground, in which the body or bodies were placed, the grave being covered by a low shelter of wood, about and over which was piled the soil from the immediate neighborhood. In still other instances the body was simply buried in the earth. Most of the mounds contained also traces of ceremonial fire and of animal bones, some of accidental inclusion, but some probably from offerings. The archeological remains were scarce, though many may have been removed by treasure hunters previously. With two skeletons, in two separate but adjacent mounds, there was found iron; with three or possibly four, were traces (stains) of brass or copper; with one a small ornament of gold; with six there were old articles of bronze such as ear pendants and bracelets; with six there were objects of bone, such as heads, or artificially perforated teeth of carnivores; with two burials there were implements of stone, and fourteen of the mounds yielded primitive hand-made pottery. The older skeletal remains of man are of special interest. Although in poor condition, they show a uniform dolichocephalic type of people, of good stature; there is no evidence of any superposition of types or even mixture until we come to relatively recent burials. The animal bones recovered from the various mounds comprise those of three or four species now extinct in these regions, namely: Bison bonasus,Equus (prob. gmelini), Ochotona pusilla, and Marmota bobak; and those of some of the common living ungulates and carnivora, a few birds, with a variety of rodents. Detailed report on these finds is in preparation by Professor Stolyhwo.
1b-) [Same reference as 1a]
Explorations in the Birusa caves and rock shelters on the Yenisei River, Siberia: During my trip along the Yenisei River in 1912, my attention was forcibly attracted by a large number of caves showing from a distance in the cliffs of a wild region about the mouth of a small stream known as the Birusa, on the left bank of the river about 50 miles south of Krasnoyarsk. The whole locality is known as Birusa and, as I learned later, some of the caves and nearby tumuli have been previously explored in part by M. Jelenief of Krasnoyarsk, who discovered in them remains pointing in particular to the Neolithic period. As the whole region west of the Yenisei in this latitude is very rich in mounds and other remains of old populations, some of which are known to date back to the Neolithic period, it seemed most desirable to subject the Birusa caves, as far as possible, to scientific exploration, and the work was intrusted to professor Stolyhwo, who the year before explored the mounds in Ukrania. The work was carried out during the latter part of the summer of 1913, but was greatly interfered with by adverse weather and other unfavroable conditions. Nevertheless, excavations were completed in three of the caves, four rock shelters and one mound. The results were more encouraging than conclusive. With the exception of few teeth, no skeletal remains of man were discovered; but the caves and shelters yielded numerous traces and examples of bone and stone industry. A detailed account of this exploration also is being prepared for publication by Professor Stolyhwo. Careful and extended exploration of the region is most desirable. The many remaining caves about the Birusa and the thousands of mounds over the steppes to the westward, only a few of which have as yet been touched, invite urgently the hands of the archeologist.
Some Recent Anthropological Explorations. By Ales Hrdlicka. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 1, No. 4. (Apr. 15, 1915), pp. 235-238.
Ancient Man in Europe and Asia. Field work was done by J. Matiegka, head of the Anthropological Bureau of the Bohemian University at Prague, on the subject of neolithic and later prehistoric man in central Europe. Other explorations were carried on by K. Stolyhwo, head of the Anthropological Institute of Warsaw in relation to: (a) ancient man of southwestern Russia; (b) ancient man of the Yenesei valley, Siberia. And a journey was made by me for the purpose of making a survey of the various well authenticated ancient skeletal remains of man in the Museums of Europe and of the sites of their discovery.
The direct results of these expeditions were the acquisiton of a series of valuable specimens, including a trephined and mineralized neolithic skull in excellent state of preservation, and of valuable data which in part have already been published (Hrdlička, A., The most ancient skeletal remains of man, Smithsonian Rept. for 1914, pp. 491-552, pls. i-xli.) and in part are in preparation for publication.
The kourgans or burial mounds in northeastern Russia were found to range in age from the neolithic to the Scythic periods. They yielded some exceedingly interesting skeletal material of man as well as that of various animals, some of which are now extinct in these regions. The Yenisei caves, regrettably, gave few skeletal remains, though such could doubtless be obtained by further exploration; but they yielded objects of neolithic culture, which may be of value in future archeological comparisons with the more eastern portions of Asia and possibly even with America. The examination of the ancient skeletal finds in Europe showed, besides a series of more or less doubtful specimens, a wealth of thoroughly authenticated material relating to man's descent…
2b-) [Same reference as 2a]
Search in Asia for Traces of the Race that Peopled America. Besides the explorations in the Yenisei caves, above mentioned, two trips were made to northeastern Asia. The first of these, made by me, extended to the upper Yenisei and Selenga river territories and to outer Mongolia, while the second, by St. (Stanislaw) Poniatowski, head of the recenty established Ethnological Institute at Warsaw, penetrated to the living tribes in the Primorskaia Oblast, Siberia. The results of these expeditions comprise anthropological data, a valuable series of photographs, and a collection of rare skeletal material. The evidence indicates that there still exist, throughout extensive areas of norhtern and eastern Asia remnants of former prehistoric (rather than 'paleoasiatic') peoples closely resembling the American Indian in type, mentality and other important particulars. In southern Siberia, Mongolia, and the regions to the eastward, there are also extensive archeological remains in the forms of mounds and occupation sites, ranging in chronology from neolithic to historic times. The exploration of these has yet scarcely been commenced, and may be expected, when properly entered upon, to reveal details of the greatest consequence to American anthropology, for here somewhere must lie the remains, cultural and skeletal, of the ancestors of those who peopled the American continent (For preliminary reports on this work, see Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collect., 60, (1912); Compte-Rendu XIV Cong. Intern. d'Anthropologie et d'Archéologie Préhist., Genève, 1913; and Trans. XVIII Intern. Cong. Americanists, London, 1914).
2c-) [Miscellaneous, see link below]
Also see: National Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives: The Papers of Aleš Hrdlicka (1869-1943) include his correspondence with Kazimir Stolyhwo. Hrdlicka was born in Bohemia (Czech). At the requrest of Frederic W. Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, Hrdlicka examined controversial skeletal material from Trenton, New Jersey, and Lansing, Kansas. In 1906 traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1910, in Argentina he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley. He examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed other anthropologists in South and East Africa ; St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; the Philippines; eastern Siberia; and the Ukraine. In 1918, he surveyed ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. With much of the Army Medical Museum skeletal collection already transferred to the Smithsonian, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from forensic examinations… During World War II, he advised government officials on postwar policies toward certain national groups… He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists. Hrdlicka's papers…reflects his many professional interests and activities except the earliest, for which the documents burned):
Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund. By Charles S. Minot. Science, New Series, Vol. 35, No. 903. (Apr. 19, 1912), pp. 612-613.
No. 172, $75 to K. Stolyhwo, rue Kaliksta, Varsovie, Poland, for the archeological exploration of the Cave of Lary, Poland. (Application 1,264).
Signature by Charles S. Minot, Secretary. Harvard Medical School, Boston.
Scientific Notes and News. Science, New Series, Vol. 59, No. 1519. (Feb. 8, 1924), pp. 140-143.
The following awards where made at the last meeting of the trustees of the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund on November 27, 1923: … to professor H. (this seems to be a "typo" and should be a "K.") Stolyhwo, Anthropological Institute, Warsaw, $ 200 to aid in his studies of anthropologic types on Polish Territory… The Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund is administered by G. H. Parker, president; E. B. Wilson, secretary; Charles S. Rackemann, treasurer; and G. H. Baxter and W. B. Cannon, members of the board of trustees. The trustees meet three times a year toward the end of February, of May and of November. Applications should be in the hands of the secretary well in advance of the date of the meeting.
Grants from the Elizabeth Thompson Science Fund(in Scientific Events). Science, New Series, Vol. 63, No. 1634. (Apr. 23, 1926), pp. 419-420.
At the Meeting of May 28. 1925. No. 267 to K. Stolywho, Anthropologic Institute, Warsaw, Poland, $ 300 for anthropological investigations in Poland.
News and Notes. Science, New Series, Vol. 104, No. 2688. (Jul. 5, 1946), pp. 10-16.
In: Announcements:
The International Congress of the Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, which last met in Copenhagen in 1938, has been reconstituted by a well-attended meeting of the Permanent Council, at New College, Oxford, 13-15 April, and at the Royal Anthropological Institute, London, 16-18 April…attended by 34 delegates, it was voted to hold the next, or third, session of the Congress in Czechoslovakia during August 1947… Those present included: Stolyhwo (Poland).
At that time it was stated: Sciencestands ready to relinquish all priority to papers now waiting in our files for publication if the author can find a suitable medium for prompter publication.
Kazimierz Stolyhwo was the founder in 1905 of the "Anthropological Laboratory at the Museum of Industry and Farming", University of Warsaw. "The beginnings were very difficult. Prof. Stolyhwo did not receive any salary and his only collaborator was his wife - Maria… Prof. Stolyhwo assembled more than a dozen of collaborators, including Stanislaw Poniatowski and Rev. Boleslaw Rosinski…[when] Kazimierz Stolyhwo moved to Cracow in 1933, the [then called] Institute of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, strongly depending on his activity, ceased to exist… Rev. Professor Boleslaw Rosinski returned to Warsaw for good and started building up a new unit, initially only as a laboratory and a seminar… [but] in January 1954 Prof. B. Rosinski retired. Being a parish priest at St.Theresa's church on Tamka Street in Warsaw, he moved to the Catholic Theological Academy and occupied the Chair of Anthropology there… [today] members of "Puerta del Sol" [from Poland] take part in excavations carried out by the Andean Mission [from Poland] in Peru and Bolivia… the Mission issues its own annual bulletin and, in collaboration with the Polish Society for Latin American Studies, the journal "Estudios Latinoamericanos". In 1998 Wiercinski's book titled "Tlillan-Tlapallan. Estudios sobre la religion mesoamericana" was published by the above mentioned Society… [and there are] the Department's own series "Anthropology of religion" presenting the students' best works. The Department and the Andean Archaeological Mission actively joined the organization of the 50th International Congress of Americanists in 2000."
"Kazimierz Stolyhwo, in 1905, organized an anthropological laboratory at the Museum of Industry and Agriculture, in Warsaw (Spencer, 1997; Malinowski and Wolanski, 1985). Stolyhwo was interested in anthropogenesis, transitional forms between Neanderthaland modern Homo sapiens… He also manufactured anthropometric equipment and was commissioned by the Smithsonian’s Ales Hrdlicka because of his interest in paleopathology (Spencer, 1997). Polish anthropologists were becoming well known internationally… In 1920, Stolyhwo and Jan Mydlarski surveyed over eighty thousand conscripts. They took anthropometrical measurements and Mydlarski deciphered the inheritance of the ABO blood group system, but… Mydlarski was beaten to publication by the more aggressive Bernstein (Bielicki et al., 1985)."
The Races of Europe, by Carleton Stevens Coon (1939). Chapter VI, section 5. The Scythians.
"A series of Bronze Age crania from the lower Volga region is identical, at least in indices, with the later Scythian group, and so is that from the Ukrainian Urnfields. Three skulls of so-called "Cimmerians" likewise show no important deviation."
Ref.: Stolyhwo, K., Swiatowit, vol. 6, 1905, pp. 73-80.
From the Library for the Society for Nordish Physical Anthropology:
Kowalski - Relatio Ibrahim ibn Ja'kub de itinere Slavico, quae traditur apud al-Bekri / Edidit, commentario et versione polonica atque latina instruxit Thaddaeus Kowalski cum adnotationibus J.Kostrzewski, K.Stolyhwo, K.Moszynski, K.Nitsch. Cracoviae, 1946 (Monumenta Poloniae Historica, Nova series, T. 1). [In Latin].
In 1958 he stills alive and exchanging scientific correspondence related to Neanderthals with another Czech researcher:
Was in a German Concentration Camp in World War II:
W niewoli u N.S.D.A.P.: zestawienie biograficzne w okresie od 1. IX. 1939 - 18. I. 1945 / Kazimierz Stolyhwo. Krakow: Nakladem Ksiegarni Floriana Trzecieckiego, 1946. 58 p. (in Polish. Tentative translation: A Prisoner of the German Nazis: Biographic statements, within ex 1. IX. 1939 to 18. I. 1945. Using:
Subject: Political prisoners--Germany--1939-1945--Personal narratives; Poland; Dachau (Germany : Concentration Camp). Located at: Sourasky Central Library (System Number: 001554949).
He is associated to Eugeina Stolyhwowa (also mentioned above):
Folia Morphol (Warsz). 1970;29(2):121-8. [Kazimierz and Eugenia Stolyhwo: reminiscences] [Article in Polish] Reicher M.
The Other Child: Poles in Latin America. By Bernadine Pietraszek
"Among the explorers and scientists who studied life and primitive culture in Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Mexico were Domeyko and Stolyhwo."
Here he is called in his castillian or latinized name, Casimir Stolyhwo:
Stolyhwo, Casimir, Prof. of Cracow-deported, 450, 453

Regarding his disciple H. Hoyer:
Science News. Science, New Series, Vol. 71, No. 1831. (Jan. 31, 1930), p. x+xii+xiv. Remains of an Ice Age Rhinoceros in Poland.
H. Hoyer, Member of the Sarunia Research Committee.
Do we have some more information on Neanderthals in Poland?
Let's see:
10:00-10:20. Marylène Patou Mathis
Subsistence behaviours in Middle Palaeolithic site in Poland: the Raj Cave
ICAZ, Durham 2002. Neanderthal Ecology (scientific programme)
Session Organiser - Ariane Burke (U. of Manitoba;
Jaskinia Raj. Raj Cave -Eden Cave.
History: SEP-1964 discovered. JUN-1972 opened to the public
Description: Jaskinia Raj is a horizontal cave system with many nice speleothems. The tour uses an artificial entrance tunnel and another artificial tunnel between two ends of cave passages allow a round trip inside the cave.
Paleolithic remains were found in the cave. The remains of Neanderthal man are the reason why this cave is protected.
The cave has a small exhibition of speleothems, archaeological and paleontological finds.
Rubinowski Z., 1996, Raj - [W:] Jaskinie Rejonu Swietokrzyskiego, Urban J. (red.), PTPNoZ, Warszawa.
Rubinowski Z., Wroblewski T.,1986, Jaskinia Raj, Wydawnictwa Geologiczne, Warszawa.
Wroblewski T., 1983, Jaskinia Raj, KAW, Lódz.
Parma Ch., 1992, Najpiekniejsze jaskinie, Voyager, Warszawa.
Narzedzia krzemienne ludzi neandertalskich("Narzedzia flint of the neanderthal folks").
What have to say about that some Bible Scholars?
Let's notice that the characteristics of the city of Ashtaroth (ca B.C. 1451) and the attire of Goliat (ca. B.C. 1063). Similar styles reappeared in Medieval times.
Ashtaroth, Ashtoreth: "A city, presumably a center of the worship of the goddess Ashtaroth (see below)…the city probably mentioned in the time of Abraham was later the capital of the giant Og, king of Bashan (Deut. 1:4). It was in the territory allotted to Manasseh by Moses (Jos. 13:31), but, though Joshua conquered Og (Jos. 9:10) and took Ashtaroth (Jos. 12:4), it was evidently not held, for it remained among the territories yet to be possessed when Joshua was an old man (Jos. 13:12)… A stylized representation of a city with crenellated towers and battlements standing on a mound below the name as-tar-tu (Astartu) is given on a bas-relief (a limestone relief) of Tiglath-Pileser III, which was discovered at Nimrud (British Museum 118908)". "Ashtaroth was also the name of a mother goddess with aspects as goddess of fertility, love and war, known to the Israelites through the Canaanites (1 Ki 11:5)…" T. C. M., The New Bible Dictionary.
Anakim were a Cushite tribe of the same race as the Philistines and the Egyptian shepherd kings. David on several occasions encountered them (2 Samuel 21:15-22). From this race sprung Goliath (1 Samuel 17:4) (Easton, M.G., 1897, Illustrated Bible Dictionary, 3rdEdition, published by Thomas Nelson, online edition).
It is written that Og was of the remnant of the giants (Rephaim) (Deut. 3:11, Josh. 12:4), equally, other Rephaim individuals, children or sons of the giant (Raphahin 2 Sam., Rapha in 1 Chr.) within the Canaanite group of the Philistines, are: Sippai also called Saph (1 Chr. 20:4, 2 Sam. 21:18), that was of the children of the giant, which was slain by Sibbechai the Hushathite; and Lahmi (1 Chr. 20:5, 2 Sam. 21:19), the brother of Goliaththe Gittite (see below), whose spear staff was like a weaver's beam. Lahmi was slain by Elhanan the son of Jair. Then we have the description of a man (Heb. ’Ish, a male) of great stature, whose fingers and toes were four and twenty, six on each hand, and six on each foot: and he also was the son of the giant, but when he defied Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea, David's brother, slew him (1Chr. 20:7, 2 Sam. 21:20). One of them (Ishbibenob) almost killed David, who waxed faint. Ishbibenob, was of the sons of the giant, the weight of whose spear weighed three hundred shekels of brass in weight, he being girded with a new sword, thought to have slain David, but Abishai the son of Zeruiah succoured him, and smote the Philistine, and killed him. Those four were born unto the giant in Gath; and they fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants (1 Chr. 20:8, 2 Sam. 21:22).
But the most well known of these Giants, and of which a deeper description is given in the Bible is Goliath(whose name means "an exile or soothsayer," Young’s, p. 426) of Gath (1 Sam. 17:4-51, 21:9, 22:10). We will find a remarkable set of details about his garment. He is described as a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, whose height was six cubits and a span, and he had six pieces clothing him: an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat wasfive thousand shekels of brass, and he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders, and the staff of his spear waslike a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield went before him, and he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel. This cry was to instill fear in them, and its result was that "they were dismayed, and greatly and sore afraid" (1Sam 17:11, 1Sam 17:24), and the Philistine Goliath drew near morning and evening, and presented himself forty days (1Sam 17:16). The Philistine said, "I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together" (1Sam 17:10), but David clearly understood the real background, when he said: for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God? (1Sam 17:26), and David said to the king of Israel "Let no man's heart fail because of him; thy servant will go and fight with this Philistine" (1Sam 17:32), and also "thy servant slew both the lion and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them" (1Sam 17:36), "the LORD that delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine" (1Sam 17:37).
On analyzing the details of the description of Goliath’s garments we have an interesting detail: Goliath was sixcubits and a span in height (1 Sam. 17:4), his spear's head weighed sixhundred shekels (1 Sam. 17:7), and he had six pieces of armour (1 Sam. 17:5-7). The great defiers of God have been stamped with the number six, equally Nebuchadnezzar's Image was sixty cubits in height, and sixcubits wide; and six main instruments of music summoned its worshippers (Dan. 3) (E. W. Bullinger, The Apocalypse, or "The Day of the Lord", The Fourth Vision "On Earth", 2nd ed., 1909).
"The presence of these Nephilim, or fallen ones, who "come of the Nephilim" (see R.V.), in the land of Canaan… [was] the root cause for the extermination of the Canaanites. It was not at all a matter of unjust cruelty or vengeance on the part of Israel; but it was a matter of moral necessity for the well being of the human race, as such; and hence it was a command of God. In this case the sword was the instrument of judgment. Joshua beginning the work … the punitive justice of God was to preserve the race from absolute extinction, and secure the fulfillment of His Word and Will in the coming of the Seed of the woman (Gen. 3.15)", in: James Christopher Smith, The Ages: Past, Present, and Future. 5. The Main Cause of the Apostacy, 1905, Things to Come, 11(12):138-139.
The Amalekites declined later, and in Hezekiah´s days the sons of Simeon attacked "the remnant of the Amalekites that escaped", taking their stronghold in Mount Seir (1 Chr. 4:43).
"Infidels never tire of charging God with cruelty, not knowing the awful ancestry, or the nature and character of this corrupt race. The judgment executed by Israel was a mercy (Ps. 136.20) to the whole human race" (Bullinger, E. W., "S" and "s" or THE USE AND USAGE of pneuma in the New Testament, 1905, Things to Come, 11(10):110-111).
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  1. The skull which is shown first is a halfbreed Neanderthal and not a fullblooded one. The brow ridges in a Neanderthal are a continuous thickness across while modern man with heavier brows has the brow ridhe broken into two parts, the inner part over the nose and then the outer edge parts. This skull has the ridges in the two parts but the inner part of the ridge is like a Neaderthal's. And the eye sockets are not exactly the right shape. So it's not a full Neanderthal but a part-Neanderthal.

  2. Yes, Boris Porshnev says that, he calls it a "Postneanderthal", a halfbreed surviving strain. Which would be a half-Orc or Half-Ogre corresponding to the half-Troll Berserkers, and Porshnev also says the ancient Persians had half-Almas warriors in the capacity of Berserkers as well. So it all fits together ["Orc" in this instance is a variation on the same word as "Ogre" and "Ogre" is legitimately a "Wildman/Forestman" name used in Central Europe, including the form "Orculli" or "Little Orc" used in Italy and "Norgelen" in Bavaria. They are identical to the Fankenmann and Fanggen, and they are hairy, go barefoot and they smell bad: these names refer to the small ones but thet have larger relatives. See A Field Guide to the Little People by Nancy Arrowsmith, p. 92]

    Best Wishes, Dale D.


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