In the case of the Sivatherium, finding pieces that made the horns longer would not change the identification; indeed, it can be seen that the ends of the horns are quite obviously broken off in the illustration shown at the top, comparing the artefact with a reconstruction of the Sivatherium. The illustration of the artefact comes from Colbert's article and the paste-up comparison was done by a reviewer (with supposedly a link to the original article; unfortunately, the link is a dud). More importantly, as soon as Colbert published his article, it was correctly pointed out that Sumerian artwork shows animals that were never tamed in similar context, so that even if the bronze does depict a Sivatherium, it does not necessarily mean the animal was actually tamed simply because its image was put to ornamental use. Several authorities assumed that Sumerians had tamed Asiatic wild asses or onagers before horses were introduced on the basis of similar artefacts, but zoological authorities doubted very much if onagers were tameable. The best examples of artwork seemed instead to represent donkeys from Egypt).
Sivatherium ('Shiva's beast)' is an extinct genus of giraffid that ranged throughout Africa to Southern Asia (mostly India). The African species, S. maurusium, was once placed within the genus "Libytherium." It may have become extinct as recently as 6,000 years ago, as depictions that greatly resemble it are known from ancient rock paintings in the Sahara desert. Sivatherium resembled the modern okapi, but was far larger, and more heavily built, being about 2.2 meters (7 ft 4 in) tall at the shoulder. It had a wide, antler-like pair of ossicones on its head, and a second pair of ossicones above its eyes. Its shoulders were very powerful to support the neck muscles required to lift the heavy skull.
References1. 1.^ The Paleobiology Database 2.^ a b Palmer, D., ed (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 278. ISBN 1-84028-152-9.
In this case I am identifying the supposed "Living Dinosaur" Ngoubou as a Surviving Sivatherium instead: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngoubou
The Ngoubou is a purportedly surviving ceratopsian-like cryptid in the savanna region of Cameroon. It is said to have six horns, and fights elephants for land, despite its smaller size (about the size of an ox, according to locals). In November 2000, William Gibbons did some preliminary research in Cameroon for a future Mokele-mbembe expedition. He was accompanied by David Wetzel. While visiting with a group of pygmies they were informed about an animal called Ngoubou. Although ngoubou is also the local word for rhinoceros, the pygmies asserted this was not a regular rhinoceros, as it had more than one horn (six horns on the frill in one account), and further stated that the father of one of the senior members of the community had killed one with a spear a number of years ago. The locals had noted a firm decline in the population of these animals lately, making them harder to find. [It should also be stated that one-horned rhinoceros are quite unknown animals in this area as well - DD] Gibbons identified the animal with a Styracosaurus, but these are currently only known to have inhabited North America. It might be related to the Emela-ntouka, but this animal is single-horned. Ceratopsian fossils are not found in Africa. Most have been found in Eastern Asia and North America, with one find in Australia [Wikipedia goes on to recite a 'possible sighting' which Heuvelmans states to be a hoax. It is notable that most such creatures as reported in Africa are stated to be amphibious but graze in clearings and not in the denser jungles themselves - DD]
1.^ a b Cryptomundo.com » The Ngoubou 2.^ Ceratopsians 3.^ Mackal, Roy P. A Living Dinosaur? In Search of Mokele-Mbembe; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1987: ISBN 90-04-08543-2 4.^ On the Track of Unknown Animals by Bernard Heuvelmans, Kegan Paul, 3rd revised edition, 1995 ISBN 0-7103-0498-6
Further information was supplied from another Monster Quest interview and reproduced as follows:
"Regarding the Ngoubou/Emela-ntouka, it would not suprise me if this animal was a rhino of some kind – perhaps even a new species. The game wardens in South Africa’s Kruger National Park have witnessed some epic battles between rhinos and elephants when the two encounter one another at water holes. The elephants, however, always win. Perhaps the Ngoubous are faring better against the smaller less aggressive forest elephants in Congo and Cameroon. The savannah dwelling Ngoubous are described as being heavily armoured, with a beaked mouth [or drooping upper lip such as the Sivatherium had - DD], up to six horns (or spikes) protruding [backward-DD] from is head/neck area, and a thin tail like an elephant[Emphasis added by DD]. The animal is also said to give birth to a single calf. All these factors tell me that the savannah Ngoubou is most likely a mammal of some kind, and possibly a very rare species of aggressive, armoured rhino. An unusual rhino perhaps, but a rhino just the same. It would nevertheless make a fascinating discovery, considering that they are shot for food from time to time.
"The river N’Goubous are described as possessing from one to two horns (again, sexual dimorphism?)and can hide under water like a hippo. A two horned specimen was trapped and killed in a Baka elephant trap as it exited the Boumba River in 1996. We are now setting up a reward system for the Baka for any physical evidence they can keep for us, such as a horn, piece of bone, skin or a tooth. Indeed, anything that can yield DNA evidence.
"Finally, I should mention that any discovery of a living dinosaur will not, in my opinion, prove the Bible to be a handbook on living dinosaurs, prove that the earth is 6,000 years old, or disprove evolution. The discovery of a living dinosaur will be absolutely monumentous, and I hope a huge leap forward for science in studying and learning more about these fascinating animals. I hope that my forthcoming new book on Mokele-mbembe will help to clarify this subject somewhat for all interest parties, regardless of where they stand on the question of origins."
This interviewee obviously considers the Emela-Ntouka and the Ngoubou to be the same despite the fact that the one is described as a one-horned armoured rhinoceros and the other as an ox-sized creature with bizzare palmate and spiked horns at the rear of its head. Those horns are what calls the Sivatherium to mind as a candidate for the legend, and no knid of rhinoceros-like creature otherwise has anything like that. I am also informed that "Ngoubou" can also mean the African buffalo in other areas.